A Study of Ceramic Pot Filters Made From Clay Body and Sawdust

Journal of Resources Development and Management www.iiste.org
ISSN 2422-8397 An International Peer-reviewed Journal
Vol.45, 2018

Adeyemi Samson Adeleke Kamar Taiwo Oladepo* Julius Olatunji Jeje
Department of Civil Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Abstract
As a follow-up of an earlier effort to produce ceramic pot filter from locally available materials, studies were carried out towards the development of the filter from clay, laterite and sawdust. As measured by flow rate and
water quality tests, the filter having 45% sawdust and 55% clay body by volume was adjudged the best having satisfied the acceptable flow rate (between 1 and 2 litres/hour) and water quality (turbidity less than 5 NTU); in addition, the removal efficiency of suspended solids was 94%.

Keywords: Atamora Pottery Centre, turbidity, suspended solids, laterite, ceramic mould, slurry

Suitability of Using Ipetumodu Potter’s Clay for the Production of Ceramic Pot Filters

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology
22(6): 1-10, 2017; Article no.CJAST.34740
Previously known as British Journal of Applied Science & Technology
ISSN: 2231-0843, NLM ID: 101664541

Kamar Taiwo Oladepo1*, Sunday Oluwatosin Fajuke1
and Adedayo Samson Ojo1
1Department of Civil Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Authors’ contributions
This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Author KTO designed the study and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. Authors SOF and ASO managed the experimental work and prepared the tables. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Article Information
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34740
Editor(s):
(1) Saeed Khorram, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Cyprus.
Reviewers:
(1) A. J. Varkey, University of Swaziland, Swaziland.
(2) Rafael Marín Galvín, Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.
(3) Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis, UNESP, Brazil.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/20337

Abstract:

Ceramic filtration is one of the household water treatment methods of providing potable water to rural dwellers in developing nations. This study reports an effort to produce ceramic pot filters from locally available clay using rice husk and sawdust as the combustible materials; the fractions of the combustible material used in preparing the pots were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by volume.
The filters were tested for flow rate and effectiveness in the removal of turbidity, suspended, dissolved and total solids. The filter that contains 20% rice husk was found to be the most efficient because of its acceptable flow rate and effluent water quality; the first-hour flow rate was 1.66 litres per second while the turbidity of the effluent was reduced from 38 NTU to 4 NTU after five hours of filtration. The efficiency of suspended solids removal ranged between 67 and 89%. The next phase of the study, which is in progress, involves the construction of a hydraulic press to facilitate the production of the filters in a sustainable manner.

Manufacturing a Ceramic Water Filter Press for Use in Nigeria

Ebele A. Erhuanga, Isah Bolaji Kashim,
Tolulope L. Akinbogun, Olusegun A. Fatuyi,
Isiaka A. Amoo and Daniel J. Arotupin

Abstract
A significant proportion of Nigerian households lack access to improved and safe drinking water supplies. This has resulted in high incidences of diarrhoeal-related deaths in the country, especially among young children. Several studies have shown that point-of-use water treatment options such as ceramic filtration are effective in reducing the occurrence of water-borne diseases; however, its use in Nigeria has been significantly low. There is a need to build entrepreneurial capacity among local potters and potteries to drive the scale up of ceramic water filter production across
the nation in order to create demand for the filters, seeing that huge potential for its sales abounds. However, the high cost of acquisition of the ceramic water filter press, which is the most essential equipment in the production of the water filters, is a major limitation to the scale up of ceramic water filter production in the country.
The goal of the study was to manufacture a ceramic water filter press, by adapting an existing design, using locally sourced materials and manpower, to achieve lower cost. The resulting filter press cost approximately $1000, proving the viability and cost efficiency of the local manufacture of ceramic water filter presses in Nigeria.
Keywords: ceramic water filters, filter press design, household water treatment,
manufacturing, Nigeria

Analyse des risques sanitaires dans la production de filtres à eau en céramique à Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 13(2): 1210-1221, April 2019
ISSN 1997-342X (Online), ISSN 1991-8631 (Print)
© 2019 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. 8081-IJBCS
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v13i2.49
Original Paper http://ajol.info/index.php/ijbcs

Mariette Bediakon GOKPEYA1,2*, Julie Kouakou SACKOU1,3, Jean Stéphane CLAON1,4,
Beneld Moh Chantal OKA1 et Luc Kouakou KOUADIO1,2
1Département de Santé Publique, Hydrologie et Toxicologie, UFR des sciences pharmaceutiques et
biologiques, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny ; 22 BP 1306 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire.
2 Institut National d’Hygiène Publique, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire ; 01 BPV 14 Abidjan 01
3 Institut National de Santé Publique ; BP V 47 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.
4 Laboratoire d’Analyse et de Contrôle de la qualité de l’eau (LACQUE), Office National de l’Eau Potable,
Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire ; 04 BP 42 Abidjan 04.
*Auteur correspondant ; E-mail : kemonmariette@gmail.com; Tél:+225 57652442 ; 23 BP 434 Abidjan 23.

ABSTRACT
The use of ceramic filters for point-of-use water treatment is considered as a reliable approach to ensure the safety of drinking water supplies. So the association N Christ recently popularized in Côte d’Ivoire a filter called FILTRAO®. The need for quality assurance of this one led us to identify by HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) approach, the critical parameters of its manufacturing process. The study was conducted in Abidjan as part of the process of issuing a health certificate for FILTRAO®.

The HACCP approach was conducted at the seven-step filter production unit from the establishment of a HACCP team to the identification of Critical Control Points (CCPs). It shows that clay, sawdust and water are the raw materials used for the production of FILTRAO®. The manufacturing process was artisanal and the CCPs were at the stages of evaluating the quality of the clay, the mechanical treatment of the raw materials and the firing of the
ceramic pots. These results suggest that the HACCP plan can be adopted as a quality assurance approach to optimize the effectiveness and safety of FILTRAO®.
© 2019 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved

Production of Water Filter from Porcelanite by Dry pressing

Diyala Journal for Pure Science

Enas Muhi Hadi* and Safa Luay Jasim
Applied Sciences Department – University of Technology – Baghdad – Iraq 2020

Volume: 17, Issue: 1, January 2021
Manuscript Code: 532B

P-ISSN: 2222-8373
E-ISSN: 2518-9255

Abstract
Filtration is the process of removing suspended objects from the fluid by passing it through a porous filter. In this study porous ceramic water filter was preparation from Iraqi local porcelanite and Iraqi white kaolin with ratio (10%) as a binding material, and natural additives )wheat flakes( with ratio (5,10,15,20,25, and 30) %. Ceramic materials used in the manufacture
of the filter are environment – friendly materials and harmless. Filter is not expensive and easy to prepare, the specimens were formed by dry pressing then fired at (1200) ˚C, to evaluation of prepared filters the following tests were performed, linear shrinkage, loos in mass, apparent porosity, water absorption, apparent density, permeability as physical properties, compressive strength and diametrical strength as mechanical properties. The result shows that the linear shrinkage decreased to 0.6 %, loos in mass increased to 24.25 %, apparent porosity increased to 55%, water absorption increased to 50.99%, apparent density decreased to 1.07(g/cm3), permeability increased to 0.131(cm2/ bar. min), compressive strength decreased to 1 (MPa) and diametrical strength decreased to 3 (MPa) with adding ratio (30%) of wheat flakes (W.F), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using to studying the microstructures which showed homogenies distribution of pores form a net in filter, adding wheat flakes with (30) % give highest pores.

Effects of Sawdust and Rice husk Additives on Physical Properties of Ceramic Filter

Journal of University of Babylon, Engineering Sciences, Vol.(26), No.(1): 2018.

Majid. Muhi Shukur Mohsin Abbas Aswad Saba Mohamed Bader
College of Materials Engineering, Babylon of University
majidalmuqdadi@gmail.com Mohsin.Aswad@gmail.com saba.mohamed.bader@gmail.com

Abstract
Two processes were employed for forming, specifically, slip casting and semi-dry press were used to manufacture ceramic filters from local raw materials, red clay and combustible materials (sawdust and rice husk). Different proportions of additives were used as pores forming agents to create porosity in ceramic filter. Dried filters were fired at temperature to 1000°C.
It was found that the forming technique and additives have great effect on the physical properties of the produced ceramic filters. The slip casting technique was more suitable procedure for producing a porous ceramic filter. As well as, porosity increased as percentage of the combustible materials increased.
Keywords: Ceramic Filter, Combustible Material, Porosity.

Mechanical, Microstructural and Mineralogical Analyses of Porous Clay Pots Elaborated with Rice Husks

Yeri Dah-Traoré, Lamine Zerbo, Mohamed Seynou*, Raguilnaba Ouedraogo
Laboratory of Molecular and Materials Chemistry, Chemistry Department, University Ouaga 1 Professor Joseph KI-ZERBO,
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 2018, 6, 257-270
http://www.scirp.org/journal/jmmce
ISSN Online: 2327-4085
ISSN Print: 2327-4077

Abstract
This paper deals with the elaboration of porous ceramic pots with raw clay
materials and rice husks for water filtration. The basic raw clays have been
mixed with rice husks at different ratio 10% and 15% weight (wt) and sintering
at 1200˚C, 1300˚C and 1400˚C for 30 minutes. The elaborated pots have
been tested for their densification properties and filtration flow. The mineralogy
and microstructure of pot have been also studied to explain the different
results. The pot with 10% wt rice husks and sintering at 1300˚C during 30
minutes presents a sufficient porosity and mechanical strength to be used for
water filtration.

Identification of Montmorillonite (smectite)

Clay Minerals (1971) 9, I.
A PLASTICITY CHART AS AN AID TO THE
IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT
OF INDUSTRIAL CLAYS
J. A. BAIN
Institute of Geological Sciences, 64-78 Gray’s Itvt Road, London WCI
(Read at the Spring 1970 meeting of the Clay Minerals Group
and the Basic Science Section of the British Ceramic Society, at
CambrMge; Receh’,ed 27 June 1970).

Mineralogical and physicochemical characterization of Ngaye alluvial clays (Northern Cameroon) and assessment of its suitability in ceramic production

Soureiyatou Fadil-Djenaboua, Paul-Désiré Ndjigui a, Jean Aimé Mbey b,c,∗
a Department of Earth Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon b Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon c Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux, Université de Lorraine, UMR 7360, 15 Avenue du Charmois, B.P. 40, F-54501
Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex, France

Original Article: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S2187076414000992/1-s2.0-S2187076414000992-main.pdf?_tid=e47ac0d8-3008-4c40-b009-c3dc6bec9a85&acdnat=1523718815_3099bd4bb01beeeaeec02b561e4d4d82

https://ac.els-cdn.com/S2187076414000992/1-s2.0-S2187076414000992-main.pdf?_tid=e47ac0d8-3008-4c40-b009-c3dc6bec9a85&acdnat=1523718815_3099bd4bb01beeeaeec02b561e4d4d82

Mineralogical and chemical characterization of DD3 kaolin from the east of Algeria

Hamza Senoussi a, Hocine Osmani a, Christian Courtois b, Mohamed el Hadi Bourahli a,∗ a Non Metallic Materials Laboratory, Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, University Ferhat Abbes, Setif 1 Algeria
b Ceramics Materials and Processes Laboratory, University of Valenciennes and Hainaut-Cambresis, France.

The mineralogical and chemical characteristics, based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, of a kaolin known as DD3, from eastern Algeria were examined in the present study.

The results showed that kaolin DD3 has an alumina content of 39%. The SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio of 2.14 is close to that of a pure halloysite. The hematite concentration is relatively large and the flux oxides ratios remain as acceptable impurities. Microscopic observations showed a predominant tubular halloysite phase, flattened hexagonal platelets corresponding
to the presence of kaolinite and its polymorphs (nacrite, dickite), and hydrated alumina.

The SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio and tubular DD3 suggest possible uses in technical ceramics and nanotechnology applications.
Analysis by XRD revealed the presence of many phases. Thermal treatment at 450 ◦C and chemical treatment with HCl confirmed the presence of halloysite. The inclusion in the clay of organic molecules (dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), DMF, and diluted glycerol) showed that the DMSO led to expansion of the inter-planar distance. The intercalation by DMSO molecules resulted in a shift of the basal peak from 10 to 11.02 A˚ and partial displacement of the peak from 3.35 to 3.65 A. ˚ These two peaks are characteristic of halloysite. The presence of residual nacrite was also confirmed by the shift of the peak observed at 3.35 A. ˚
A full analysis of the XRD patterns using the Match software, based on these results, showed that the DD3 clay consists of >60% halloysite.

Original Article at: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0366317515001260/1-s2.0-S0366317515001260-main.pdf?_tid=26e52889-5066-480f-b857-c000bb1d6d3c&acdnat=1523718766_594018c22dd1ec83f91c55473e1eab0b

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Characterization and assessment of Saudi clays raw material at different area

Q. Mohsen a, A. El-maghraby a,b,*
a Materials and Corrosion Lab., Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
b Ceramic Department, National Research Center, Tahrir Str., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Received 7 April 2010; accepted 10 June 2010
Available online 17 June 2010

Original Article at: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S1878535210000675/1-s2.0-S1878535210000675-main.pdf?_tid=b25c8c8f-9e94-47d8-b49c-bc1573e80ebc&acdnat=1523718442_6d0117e6c45225279dedb15e74b53348

Assessment of saudi clays by various methods

Pot Filter Arsenic Removal with Bone Char Attachment

Link to original article: https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/ijsle/article/view/5261/5150

A Sustainable and Simple Solution in Resource-poor Settings

Stephen D. Passman – Saint Louis University
Tyler J. White, MPH – Saint Louis University
Roger D. Lewis, PHD, CIH – Saint Louis University

CONCLUSIONS
The results suggest that the designed test filter has a significant potential for removing arsenic concentrations to below both WHO and EPA drinking water standards. In addition, the clay pot filter alone demonstrated substantial reduction in the concentration of arsenic. Further research must be done to investigate longevity and practicality of the test filter, and to explore the extent to which reduction in arsenic concentration is attributable to the additional bone char layer versus the clay pot filter.
Our research team aims to continue investigating the new design to maximize removal of arsenic, other harmful metals, and bacteria. Further development will also include finding the optimal pore size and surface area for maximum arsenic adsorption to the bone char layer and the clay pot itself. Given the variance in manufacture methods of different communities producing the clay pot filters, identifying physical characteristics that result in optimal arsenic adsorption can help promote best practices for improving the effectiveness of the filters. Finally, connecting with NGOs working in resource-poor communities is critical to improving POU clay pot water filters for enhanced filtration and better health outcomes.

Point-of-Use Water Filtration for Arsenic:

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Filter setter project timeline

Pan Ring Setters 2
Version 1: Pan ring
– Currently in use in some factories manufacturing round bottom filters.
– Round bottom filters nest deeply allowing for denser stacking.
– Hand pressed into molds.
– Variation, using pieces of cut rejected filters.
– Weight is distributed onto filter rims in 3 point compression.
– Weight of stacked filters is distributed in compression cumulatively onto filter rims below.

DSCF08472
Version 2: Interlocking setter block
Abandoned during prototype process due to complex moldmaking process.
– Weight distributed in compression consecutively onto setters.
– Individual filter weight distributed in 3 point compression on rims.
– Interlocking nodes assist with locating setters.
– Hand pressed into plaster molds.

IMGP0268
Version 3: Ring Setter
Abandoned during firing testing.
– Weight of stacked filters is distributed in compression cumulatively onto filter bottoms below.
– Wheel thrown
– Firing test failed due to stress fractures. Possible cause: shrinkage differential, faulty weight contact distribution.

DSCF6259
Verion 4: Pitet Setter
Currently in prototype phase.
– Original master was jiggered, causing various difficulties.
– Proposed masters to be Lathed (CNC) or 3DP.
– Individual filter weight distributed in 3 point compression on rims.
– Interlocking nodes assist with locating setters.
– Weight distributed in compression consecutively onto setters.
– Potential to be manufactured from filter medium.

Preliminary prototype manufacturing method allows for reasonable minimum daily production, however not all materials necessary to build the mechanism are widely available (8″ plastic pipe).
First test firing results proof of concept passed. Next phase begins field trials and feedback process.
Field trials will select a partner CWF factory to produce and test the setters on a production scale. Comparisons will be made in terms of durability, labor time, fuel reduction, packing density, and applicability to various filter shapes.

Video link: http://youtu.be/NLnjDE5jxSY

Setters update.

Here is an update on the filter setters project.

Our first problem was that of alignment. This is something that we struggle with in designing appropriate technology pressing equipment. Finding a cheap and simple mechanism to keep the two halves of the mold aligned
throughout the pressing cycle.

In the case of the filter setter press, the pressures are not extreme, I wish we could figure out how to calculate the pressure curve in solidworks, anyone? facebook
In this case the difficulty of finding 2 pieces of pipe that fit together closely, caused us to try and make the outer pipe to spec. with concrete. We used a piece of 200mm green sewer pipe (expensive at $80) for the main structure. It was wrapped with 4 layers of 6 mil plastic sheet but not taped to the pipe, so the pipe could slide freely. Then placed the parts into a 12″ sonotube and cast quickrete around it.
We also cut holes into the top to fit a branch of maple for the handle.

http://tinyurl.com/qaey3oo

The inner pipe slid out easily (rotated just as the concrete had hardened green), and then the plastic.
We cut a bottom part of the green pipe now for the female mold.

For the male mold, after trying various other methods, we had it machined from aluminum at Armstrong Machine
shop.

http://tinyurl.com/qx8ydf7

This way it could thread directly onto the end of the 5/8″ threaded rod. The cutter is being made now, 1/2″ flat bar and a piece of pipe welded onto some 3mm steel plate. Can I borrow a MIG in Vernon? facebook
This will be cast into quickrete or plaster (running out of quickrete) inside the top part of the green pipe.

http://tinyurl.com/n9xp6pe

Making the female mold was a bit more complicated. We figured out after many tries to cut a profile out of arborite (countertop material $4 for offcuts at homehardware (coated fiberglass)) and to cut a master on a plaster lathe. We used hydrocal here because the pottery plaster from winrock was dead and I didnt want to drive back to Kelowna to return it. It turns out Hydrocal might be better anyway.

http://tinyurl.com/oknjd3w

Since doing this last time we figured out a better way to cast the female mold. As you can see from the photos the mold is unnecessarily in 3 parts since the level was off on the pouring of the second half (tape blowout, oops). It took quite a bit of time to get it to slide in and out of a whole pipe section easily but tightly.
It was scraped with the edge of a fresh Olfa blade.

http://tinyurl.com/q4cso35

The green pipe was a bit warped so it doesnt spin around in the concrete casting as well as hoped. about
100deg but not all the way around. Should still work.

Here are all the photos together on gplus: http://tinyurl.com/qg2cdlc

Fall 2014 News

UNC Chapell Hill, October 2014
Ceramic technician Burt Cohen will be presenting at the University of Chapel Hill conference on Water and Health.

The Ceramic Pot Filter side session is scheduled for Friday, Oct 17, 8:30am – 12:00pm. The purpose of the side session is to bring together those involved in ceramic pot filter manufacturing, marketing, dissemination and research in order to share successes and challenges over the past year and discuss future directions.

DSCF5981
Filter Setter
We are currently forming a second prototype filter setter. The filter setter is used for stacking the filters together inside the kiln in a dense configuration. The setter not only nests the filters closely together, but should distribute the weight of the filters onto the support, rather than onto each other. A denser kiln stacking will allow more efficient use of space, reduce fuel costs, and improve the productivity of existing kilns. We hope that this setter will be able to be formed on the filter press.

DSCF5984
Prototype mold Set
UK donor, Howells Llc. has produced an ovoid mold set of cast aluminum. This prototype set has a flat bottom but rounded sides, and incorporates several other small changes to the filter form. We hope that this prototype will improve strength and flow rate capabilities of the filter without requiring special drying and handling practices. Several rounds of experiments will be preformed before the mold set reaches the field-testing stage.

Prototype Press
Howells Llc. has also manufactured a prototype press which incorporates some potential advancements. Specifically, the press uses a flipping action for ejection, and is designed to be adaptable to manual, electric, or pneumatic hydraulic pistons for automation. It is hoped that this ejection method will lead to a method of ejection which will not require plastic bags, however, none of the experimental mold-release agents have yielded successful results so far.

Guinea Bissau
Although parts of West Africa have been heavily affected by the Ebola virus, our partners in Bissau are now in advanced stages of building the factory enclosure. We hope to begin batch tests and establish production in 2015. This project continues to benefit from area specific fund raising efforts including generous donations by the Canadian charity “Active Compassion” which helped pay for the first pound of colloidal silver. That’s enough silver for over 3300 filters.

DEVELOPMENT OF A CERAMIC WATER FILTER FOR NEPAL

DEVELOPMENT OF A CERAMIC WATER FILTER FOR NEPAL
by
Robert W. Dies
Bachelor of Applied Science
University of British Columbia, Canada, 2001
Submitted to the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
at the
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
June 2003

© 2003 Robert Dies.
All right reserved.
The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and distribute publicly paper and electronic copies of this thesis document in whole and in part.

 

Abstract

Countries like Nepal face tough challenges in terms of providing safe, clean drinking water for their citizens. The World Health Organization estimates that nearly 5 million people in Nepal lack access to safe drinking water while globally, 1.1 billion lack access to improved water supplies. Point-of-use water treatment technologies, such as household ceramic water filters, offer an affordable and effective means of treating water to standards suitable for drinking. The fact that ceramic water filters can be manufactured and produced by local ceramists with local materials makes ceramic filters particularly attractive as a point-of-use treatment technology that is affordable, appropriate, and sustainable.

This thesis examines existing ceramic water filter technologies, production processes, and methods for bringing a low-cost ceramic water filter to market in Nepal. Three types of disk filters and five types of candle filters are evaluated in terms of microbiological removal efficiency and flow rate. A red-clay grog disk filter coated with colloidal silver and three of the five candle filters (Katadyn􀀀 Ceradyn, Katadyn􀀀 Gravidyn, and the Hari Govinda white-clay candle filter capped on both ends) also coated with colloidal silver, performed the best in terms of microbiological removal efficiency (>98%) and flow rate (ranging from 641 mL/hr/candle (Ceradyn) to 844 mL/hr/candle (Gravidyn)).

In addition to filter testing, a guideline for developing a ceramic water filter in preparation for bringing a product to market is presented, along with a discussion on the importance of laboratory and field testing to ensure overall product performance. A step-by-step summary of the production process is also presented along with a comparison of the theoretical flow rate through a candle filter versus a disk filter. Recommendations for future work include testing and modifying the current disk-filter prototype design and research on the most appropriate filter element for the proposed prototype.

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