Storing Drinking-water in Copper-pots Kills Contaminating Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria

Storing Drinking-water in Copper-pots Kills Contaminating Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria

Abstract “Microbially-unsafe water is still a major concern in most developing countries. Although many water-purification methods exist, these are expensive and beyond the reach of many people, especially in rural areas. Ayurveda recommends the use of copper for storing drinking-water. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper-pot on microbially-contaminated drinking-water. The antibacterial effect of copper-pot against important diarrhoeagenic bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae O1, Shigella flexneri 2a, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, Salmonella enterica Typhi, and Salmonella Paratyphi is reported. When drinking-water (pH 7.83±0.4; source: ground) was contaminated with 500 CFU/mL of the above bacteria and stored in copper-pots for 16 hours at room temperature, no bacteria could be recovered on the culture medium. Recovery failed even after resuscitation in enrichment broth, followed by plating on selective media, indicating loss of culturability. This is the first report on the effect of copper on S. flexneri 2a, enteropathogenic E. coli, and Salmonella Paratyphi. After 16 hours, there was a slight increase in the pH of water from 7.83 to 7.93 in the copper-pots while the other physicochemical parameters remained unchanged. Copper content (177±16 ppb) in water stored in copper-pots was well within the
permissible limits of the World Health Organization. Copper holds promise as a point-of-use solution for microbial purification of drinking-water, especially in developing countries.”

 

Key words: Bacteria; Copper; Diarrhoea; Drinking-water; Vibrio cholerae; India

 

Download: (163Kb Adobe Acrobat PDF)
Storing Drinking-water in Copper-pots Kills Contaminating Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria

Preventing Diarrheal Disease in Developing Countries: Proven Household Water Treatment Options

“The health consequences of inadequate water and sanitation services include an estimated 4 billion cases of diarrhea and 1.9 million deaths each year, mostly among young children in developing countries. Diarrheal diseases lead to decreased food intake and nutrient absorption, malnutrition, reduced resistance to infection, and impaired physical growth and cognitive development. Since 1996, a large body of work has been published that has examined the health impact of interventions to improve water quality at the point-of-use through household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS).

Five interventions – chlorination, solar disinfection, ceramic filtration, slow sand filtration, and PUR – have been proven to reduce diarrhea in users in developing countries and improve the microbiological quality of stored household water and are discussed below. The most appropriate HWTS option for a location depends on existing water and sanitation conditions, water quality, cultural acceptability, implementation feasibility, availability of HWTS technologies, and other local conditions. For more information, contact (email in document). Photos courtesy: PSI, PFP, Hydraid, EAWAG, P&G.”

Download Pdf: http://potterswithoutborders.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/CDC%201-pager-proven-new-logo.pdf

RDIC Ceramic Water Filter Manual

This is a first publication of RDIC‟s ceramic water filter production techniques, ideas and visions. We
are planning additions and amendments into the future. So stay tuned and keep in touch as we
continue to refine and provide further information to assist you with your factory projects. Information
on updates can be found at http://www.rdic.org

http://potterswithoutborders.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/RDIC-Ceramic-Filter-Manual.pdf

Use of Ceramic Water Filters in Cambodia

Ceramic filter pilot projects (2002-2006) in Cambodia have yielded promising results that suggest these
interventions can be effective in improving drinking water quality and can contribute to substantial
health gains in populations using them.

“Executive Summary
Household-scale ceramic filtration technology is considered among the most promising options for treating drinking water at the household level in developing countries (Lantagne 2001; Sobsey 2002; Roberts 2004). Its use is Cambodia is widespread and growing, with the involvement of local and international NGOs and government efforts that have been supported by UNICEF, WSP-Cambodia, and others. Although several different kinds of ceramic filters are used for household-scale water treatment worldwide, among the most widespread is that promoted by Potters for Peace, a US and Nicaragua-based NGO; the Cambodian version is known as the Ceramic Water Purifier (CWP). It has been used in Cambodia since its introduction in 2001. Based on early successes in Cambodia (Roberts 2004), further investment in the technology is planned by NGOs and the Cambodian government. Stakeholders identified evaluation of the CWP experience to date in the country as vital to inform the scale up process and to identify lessons learned in the first 4 years of production and implementation. Part of this evaluation was an independent study commissioned by UNICEF and WSP-Cambodia to critically examine two major implementation efforts to date in Cambodia undertaken by the two main producers, IDE and RDI. The goals of the study were to characterize the microbiological effectiveness and health impacts of the CWP in target populations, and to identify successes and potential challenges facing the scale-up and implementation of the technology. The results of the study and program recommendations are presented here.”

http://www.potterswithoutborders.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/926200724252_eap_cambodia_filter.pdf

Pug Mills Increase the Strength of Filters

Pug mills really do increase the strength of our filters. At our facility in Yunnan China, we did an experiment where we made 12 blocks as we usually do (banging them on the floor) and each weighing 8.6kg (as usual).

Derek Chitwood wrote…

“Pug mills really do increase the strength of our filters. At our facility in Yunnan China, we did an experiment where we made 12 blocks as we usually do (banging them on the floor) and each weighing 8.6kg (as usual). In the next set of 12 we added 0.2kg to each block (8.8 kg) thinking that the extra material would cause extra compression – and work like a pug mill in effect. Our 3rd set of 12 had an extra 0.4kg in each block (9.0kg) – that was a lot of waste and frustrating for the technician. Then the 4th set of 12 had all the clay first go through a pug mill once and then was made into normal 8.6kg blocks (as usual – pounding them on the ground). The results where that the crack point of our filters increased about 9%. “  See the figure:
— in Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Data courtesy of Derek Chitwood

CBC.ca | Daybreak South

CBC.ca | Daybreak South.

Interviews: Daybreak South, CBC Radio, July 27 2011
Potters Without Borders – Burt Cohen speaks with Marion Barschel

Potters Without Borders has been working for years to bring clean water to African homes. Burt Cohen of Enderby is the executive director of Potters Without Borders. These are some photos he took while in Somaliland last November.

Read more on CBC.ca | Daybreak South…

CBC.ca | Daybreak South.

Interviews: Daybreak South, CBC Radio, July 27 2011
Potters Without Borders – Burt Cohen speaks with Marion Barschel

Potters Without Borders has been working for years to bring clean water to African homes. Burt Cohen of Enderby is the executive director of Potters Without Borders. These are some photos he took while in Somaliland last November.

Thumbnail image for PottersA.JPGFlow testing filters at the Biyo Miireceramic water filter factory in Hargeisa, Somaliland. This factory was set up in early 2010 by the Red Crescent Society and is currently responding to the increased demand caused by the large number of displaced people in the region.

Daybreak’s Marion Barschel spoke with Burt Cohen about what this organization is doing in Africa right now.

Video Resource Database

This is a list of videos which relate to Ceramic Water Filter technology. Please email us if you know of any others which you think should be included.

https://spreadsheets.google.com/spreadsheet/pub?hl=en_GB&hl=en_GB&key=0Am6bhmi1SpOBdEhiOGJLSjRhRkZVS3ZPcXAwb0VNZUE&output=html

 

 

Read more on Video Resource Database…

This is a list of videos which relate to Ceramic Water Filter technology. Please email us if you know of any others which you think should be included.

Google Spreadsheet Link

 

 

A Field Study on the Use of Clay Ceramic Water Filters and Influences on the General Health in Nigeria

109-790-1-PB.pdf
Anand PLAPPALLY1, 3,*, Haoqian CHEN1,2, Wasiu AYINDE4, Samson ALAYANDE4, Andrew USORO1,7, Katie C. FRIEDMAN1,2, Enoch DARE4, Taiwo OGUNYALE6, Ismaiel YAKUB1,6
Megan LEFTWICH5, Karen MALATESTA2, Ron RIVERA8, Larry BROWN3, Alfred SOBOYEJO3
and Winston SOBOYEJO1,5

Read more on A Field Study on the Use of Clay Ceramic Water Filters and Influences on the General Health in Nigeria…

109-790-1-PB.pdf

Abstract
Field study and surveys were conducted to evaluate interdisciplinary parameters influencing the health of people using ceramic filters for water purification. A total of 52 families were distributed with filters at Eweje Village, Odeda local government area, Ogun State, Nigeria. Surveys contained questions related to hygiene, health, water source and treatment, socio-economic and educational status of people and their use of clay ceramic water filters. Several parameters were studied including time of use of water filter, maintainability, education, societal economics, and social the status of the people using the filters. There was interdependence between these parameters. Health of the Eweje village community was greatly influenced by the number of people using the filter, the time of filter usage, education, maintainability, access to medical facilities, and economic status. A novel multi parameter multivariate regression approach clearly enumerates the hierarchy of the effects of the influencing variables on the health of Eweje community. Apart from population and time of filter use, access to medical services also influenced health of this rural community.
Key words: Rural, Health, Water, Filters, Education, Regression, Africa

Anand PLAPPALLY1, 3,*, Haoqian CHEN1,2, Wasiu AYINDE4, Samson ALAYANDE4, Andrew USORO1,7, Katie C. FRIEDMAN1,2, Enoch DARE4, Taiwo OGUNYALE6, Ismaiel YAKUB1,6
Megan LEFTWICH5, Karen MALATESTA2, Ron RIVERA8, Larry BROWN3, Alfred SOBOYEJO3
and Winston SOBOYEJO1,5

1Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), 70 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA;
2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Olden Street, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.
3FABE Department, The Ohio State University, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus, OH 43210, USA;
4University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, Africa;
5Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton NJ, 08544, USA;
6Eweje Village, Nigerian Ministry of Health, Federal Government of Nigeria, Africa;
7Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA;
8Potters for Peace, Ceramic Water Filter Program, Managua, Nicaragua;
Received: 29.10.2010 Accepted: 22.2.1011 Published: 19.5.2011

 

Scaling Up Household Water Treatment Among Low-Income Populations

Who-report-on-scaling-up.pdf
Prepared by:
Thomas F. Clasen, JD, PhD
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Public Health and Environment
Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health
World Health Organization
Geneva 2009

SUMMARY
Providing safe, reliable, piped-in water to every household is an essential goal, yielding optimal health gains while contributing to the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for poverty reduction, nutrition, childhood survival, school attendance, gender equity and environmental sustainability. While strongly committed to this goal and to incremental improvements in water supplies wherever possible, the World Health Organization (WHO) and others have called for targeted, interim approaches that will accelerate the heath gains associated with safe drinking-water for those whose water supplies are unsafe…

Read more on Scaling Up Household Water Treatment Among Low-Income Populations…

Who-report-on-scaling-up.pdf
Prepared by:
Thomas F. Clasen, JD, PhD
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Public Health and Environment
Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health
World Health Organization
Geneva 2009

SUMMARY
Providing safe, reliable, piped-in water to every household is an essential goal, yielding optimal health gains while contributing to the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for poverty reduction, nutrition, childhood survival, school attendance, gender equity and environmental sustainability. While strongly committed to this goal and to incremental improvements in water supplies wherever possible, the World Health Organization (WHO) and others have called for targeted, interim approaches that will accelerate the heath gains associated with safe drinking-water for those whose water supplies are unsafe…

University of Nicaragua Data

Univ-of-nicaragua-study.pdf

Brief translation Of Results

THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF NICARAGUA
Center for the Research of Aquatic Resources of Nicaragua
REPORT ON THE EFFICEINCY OF CERAMIC FILTERS IN THE REMOVAL OF ORANISISMS WHICH ARE INDICATORS OF
CONTAMINATED WATER (COLIFORMES, E. COLI AND ESTREPTOCOCOS FECALES).

Read more on University of Nicaragua Data…

Univ-of-nicaragua-study.pdf

Brief translation Of Results

THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF NICARAGUA
Center for the Research of Aquatic Resources of Nicaragua
REPORT ON THE EFFICEINCY OF CERAMIC FILTERS IN THE REMOVAL OF ORANISISMS WHICH ARE INDICATORS OF
CONTAMINATED WATER (COLIFORMES, E. COLI AND ESTREPTOCOCOS FECALES).

Marketing Safe Water Systems

Safewater-urs-heierli-1.pdf

WHY IT IS SO HARD TO GET SAFE WATER TO THE POOR – AND SO PROFITABLE TO SELL IT TO THE RICH
BY URS HEIERLI (Draft Version)

 

About this publication

Read more on Marketing Safe Water Systems…

Safewater-urs-heierli-1.pdf

WHY IT IS SO HARD TO GET SAFE WATER TO THE POOR – AND SO PROFITABLE TO SELL IT TO THE RICH
BY URS HEIERLI (Draft Version)

 

About this publication

Author: Urs Heierli is an economist (Ph.D., University of St. Gallen). From 1987 to 1999 he served as country director of SDC – the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation in Bangladesh and India. During a subsequent sabbatical, he wrote the study ‘Poverty Alleviation as a Business’ and then joined the Employment and Income Division at SDC head office in Berne. In November 2003, he launched his own consulting company, msd consulting (Markets, Sustainability and Development) in Berne, to focus further on the market creation approach to development.

Foreword: François Muenger, Senior Water Advisor, SDC

Peer review: Armon Hartmann, former Senior Water Advisor, SDC

Editor: Paul Osborn, Médiateurs, Netherlands

Photos: Urs Heierli, Population Services International (Waterguard), G. Allgood, Procter & Gamble (PUR Photos), Antenna Technologies (WATA photos), SODIS Foundation (SODIS new designs)

Design/layout:Isabelle Christ, Claudia Derteano

Copyright: SDC – Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Employment and Income Division / Urs Heierli (msd consulting), Berne

1st Edition: March 2008, printed in India

Copies: Hard copies are available from:
SDC Social Development Division (sodev@deza.admin.ch) and
SDC Employment and Income Division; (e-i@deza.admin.ch)

Electronic copies can be downloaded from:
www.deza.admin.ch/themes; www.poverty.ch/safewater; www.antenna.ch

Film clips: A companion CD with many film clips is in the back cover of this book. The clips are also available for download from www.poverty.ch/safewater.

This publication is supported by: Employment and Income Division and Social Development Division
SDC – Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
Freiburgstrasse 130
CH-3003 Berne
Switzerland

This publication is co-published by:
Antenna Technologies
29, rue de Neuchâtel
CH-1201 Geneva
Switzerland
www.antenna.ch

Analysis of Redart Clay in Filtron Water Filters

Redart-filter-tests-owu.pdf

Kristina Bogdanov, Assistant Professor, Fine Arts Department, Ohio Wesleyan University,
Delaware, Ohio
Emily Koly, BFA student, Fine Arts Department, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio

 

Abstract
One of the most commonly promoted, and used, water filters, in developing countries, is the Filtron ceramic filter. The most commonly used clay, in the production of the Filtron ceramic filter, is red clay. In the United States, Redart is the most commonly used and distributed red clay. Redart is mined by Cedar Heights in Ohio. Eight different clay body formulations were made for testing, each formula had different ratios of ingredients: Redart, sawdust, ball clays, play sand, and water. A total of 24 filters were produced, fired, and tested. Later, to compare flow rate performance, water was filtered through each filter for 3 consecutive days. The flow rates varied from 0.5 to 2 liters per hour.

Read more on Analysis of Redart Clay in Filtron Water Filters…

Redart-filter-tests-owu.pdf

Kristina Bogdanov, Assistant Professor, Fine Arts Department, Ohio Wesleyan University,
Delaware, Ohio
Emily Koly, BFA student, Fine Arts Department, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio

 

Abstract
One of the most commonly promoted, and used, water filters, in developing countries, is the Filtron ceramic filter. The most commonly used clay, in the production of the Filtron ceramic filter, is red clay. In the United States, Redart is the most commonly used and distributed red clay. Redart is mined by Cedar Heights in Ohio. Eight different clay body formulations were made for testing, each formula had different ratios of ingredients: Redart, sawdust, ball clays, play sand, and water. A total of 24 filters were produced, fired, and tested. Later, to compare flow rate performance, water was filtered through each filter for 3 consecutive days. The flow rates varied from 0.5 to 2 liters per hour.

Rwanda: Projet de filtre à  eau en céramique 2010

Une filme par: Debra Brosseuk
Projet de coopération du Potiers Sans Frontières, KIST (Kigali Institut de la Science et
Technologie), UNICEF, et  KACYIRU Cooperative Moderne de Poteries.

Guy Mbayo K. (Unicef WASH Program)
Burt Cohen (Potiers Sans Frontières)
Phocus Ntayombya (Unicef WASH Program)
Eugene Dusingizumuremyi (KIST Project Director)
Vice Rector John Mshana (KIST)
Dr. Jane Muita (Deputy Representative for UNICEF)
Honorable Minister Collette Ruhamya
Jean Paul (President de la Cooperative Moderne de Poterie)
Mugisha Esri (KIST Filter Production Officer) Continue reading “Rwanda: Projet de filtre à  eau en céramique 2010”

Rwanda Water Filter Project 2010

Une filme par: Debra Brosseuk
Projet de coop�ration du Potiers Sans Fronti�res, KIST (Kigali Institut de la Science et
Technologie), UNICEF, et� KACYIRU Cooperative Moderne de Poteries.

Guy Mbayo K. (Unicef WASH Program)
Burt Cohen (Potiers Sans Fronti�res)
Phocus Ntayombya (Unicef WASH Program)
Eugene Dusingizumuremyi (KIST Project Director)
Vice Rector John Mshana (KIST)
Dr. Jane Muita (Deputy Representative for UNICEF)
Honorable Minister Collette Ruhamya
Jean Paul (President de la Cooperative Moderne de Poterie)
Mugisha Esri (KIST Filter Production Officer) Continue reading “Rwanda Water Filter Project 2010”

Un Américain au Yémen

Un Américain au Yémen est devenu l’un des rares constructeurs mondiaux de filtres �
eau abordable et d’une simplicité céramique qui pourrait jouer un rôle vital en apportant
l’eau potable à des millions de personnes. Grâce à une technologie qui a pris naissance en Amérique latine,
il a vendu 20.000 filtres à l’an dernier à 25 dollars pièce, et espère étendre ses opérations cette année.

Par Peter Kenyon

Lien direct�� site de�NPR:

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=124012949

Un Am�ricain au Y�men est devenu l�un des rares constructeurs mondiaux de filtres ��eau abordable et d�une simplicit� c�ramique qui pourrait jouer un r�le vital en apportant�l�eau potable � des millions de personnes. Gr�ce � une technologie qui a pris naissance en Am�rique latine,�il a vendu 20.000 filtres � l�an dernier � 25 dollars pi�ce, et esp�re �tendre ses op�rations cette ann�e. (Article et podcast en anglais seulement).

[podcast]http://www.potterswithoutborders.com/forum/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/20100223_atc_18.mp3[/podcast]

Au Yémen un américain cherche succès au moyen de filtres à eau

Un Américain au Yémen est devenu l’un des rares constructeurs mondiaux de filtres Ã
eau abordable et d’une simplicité céramique qui pourrait jouer un rôle vital en apportant
l’eau potable à des millions de personnes. Grâce à une technologie qui a pris naissance en Amérique latine,
il a vendu 20.000 filtres à l’an dernier à 25 dollars pièce, et espère étendre ses opérations cette année.

Par Peter Kenyon

Lien direct à site de NPR:

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=124012949

Un Américain au Yémen est devenu l’un des rares constructeurs mondiaux de filtres à eau abordable et d’une simplicité céramique qui pourrait jouer un rôle vital en apportant l’eau potable à des millions de personnes. Grâce à une technologie qui a pris naissance en Amérique latine, il a vendu 20.000 filtres à l’an dernier à 25 dollars pièce, et espère étendre ses opérations cette année. (Article et podcast en anglais seulement).

[podcast]http://www.potterswithoutborders.com/forum/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/20100223_atc_18.mp3[/podcast]

Analysis of Filtered Water for Barium

Attached is the first part of the report from  Dr. Kingsley Donkor and Megan Campbell of the Thompson Rivers University Chemistry department analyizing water from the first of two filters that were brought to be evaluated for the possiblility of problems with Barium in clay used to form filters. These results are for the new 100% Plainsman red earth filter. You can read the report but essentially even analysis of a un flushed filter shows the barium level to be one third of the allowable limit initially and then  reduced to one third of that level very quickly.

Continue reading “Analysis of Filtered Water for Barium”

Presse des filtres à l’eau portable

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_YyCyobLSJE

Un grand défi consiste à trouver une manière que le presse peut passer les douanes et dans les endroits où il est le plus nécessaire. Ainsi Creative Machines développé une presse ultra-portable qui peut être démonté et mettez-le dans les bagages sous d’avion. Même si notre presse ne peut produire 20 tonnes de force, il peut être démonté et se mettre dans une valise. Il est si petite soit-elle ne pas encourir des frais, même de grandes dimensions. Cette vidéo 5-1/2 minute montre la presse étant testée pour la première fois par les potiers pour la paix.

Portable Water Filter Press

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_YyCyobLSJE
A big challenge is getting the press through customs and into the places where it is most needed. So Creative Machines developed a highly portable press that could be disassembled and checked as airplane luggage. Even though our press can produce 20 tons of force, it can be disassembled and made to fit in a suitcase. It is so small it doesn’t even incur an oversize fee. This 5-1/2 minute video shows the press being tested for the first time by Potters for Peace.

Senegal KOICA Project Final Report

I am home in BC and alert after a few days. I was coming down with something- maybe malarial maybe not, so I took a curative dose of my malarials so that I wouldn t have to worry. I also had a bad chest cold and was given a course of antibiotics- for what its worth I feel fine.
Attached is the Senegal final report first draft sent out this morning. I included my daily log. This went out to KOICA, the Korea International Cooperation Agency,  with whom I was working for their reponse. The two engineers with who I worked are: Joohyun Kim, and Je-Min Lee.
Ron Rivera originally received the request on this project.  We had a number of concerns regarding this start up but we agreed to be generous in implementing the start up. -The nearest ceramic producers of any sort were also quite far away as well. Still the enthusiasm on the part of the  lead personnel convinced us to proceed.

Senegal KOICA Daily log by Burt Cohen

 

 

 

Wednesday September 17, 2008

Arrived in Dakar early on the morning and met with Mr. Joohyun Kim and Mr. Je-Min Lee.I rested and traveled to plastic manufacturer to examine possible receptacles for the finished filters. Heidi Kilsby accompanied me from Quesnel, BC. She has volunteered her time to assist with the project set up.

Thursday September 18th, 2008

In the morning we met with KOICA project coordinator at his office and Mr. Kim and I signed the official contract papers. Met Mr. Chou the Korean ambassador to Senegal introduced the project and share lunch together.

In the afternoon Mr. Joohyun Kim and Mr. Je- Min Lee and I traveled to a hardware store and a machine shop to search for project materials. We purchased a hydraulic jack and looked at parts for the propane burner system. We must still purchase plastic bags. Mr. Kim has arranged for steel to be purchased in Ourossogui for the steel plates, and Mr. Lee has arranged for transport of the brick from the brickyards outside of Dakar to Ourossogui.

While we are in Dakar the workers in Ourossogui are organizing the workshop, drying clay and preparing sawdust.

Still to organize-

  1. drill bit for spigots-
  2. plastic water pipe for flow testing
  3. Screens
  4. Plastic garbage bags
  5. Digital scale 0-5kg
  6. 0-20 kg balance scale
  7. Water pipefor flow tester
  8. propane tanks
  9. burners hose and regulators
  10. brushes

Friday, September 19, 2008

In the morning we Je-Min and Joohyun and I went to the Sandaga market place and purchased most of the materials in the list

Including 6 propane tanks to transport to Matam on Saturday. The truck will be pretty full because we are also taking food because some things are difficult to find in the area.

We were able to find plastic bags- although a little larger then we need. Scales- both digital and a spring were also found first thing. I am concerned about the supply of propane gas in the area- We may need to replenish gas to advance the temperature. To insure that this would not be a problem we chose to purchase 6 tanks. There still may be a problem with pressure drop if gas is withdrawn to quickly from the tanks during the firing. We may have to warm the tanks while we are firing.

Saturday- September 20th 2008

Traveled to Matam all night-

Sunday September 21st, 2008

Woke up after a couple of hours sleep and went to the new KOICA ceramic filter workshop tobriefly look at the workshop to meet with the workers see what had been prepared.

There is only about 5 X 25kg of clay crushed and screened. Evidently went the workers attempted to mill the clay it was too damp. There is some sawdust but none of it has been screened.

Monday September 22, 2008

Went from Matam to Ourossogui to with Je-Min and Joohyun Lee to prepare materials for the filters. In the morning we met with the mason and scheduled his work to begin the kiln. We planned the construction on the kiln roof. We assembled the filter press and aligned it.
I looked at the clay and made a shrinkage test then examined the clay’s plasticity and found it to be very plastic.

In the afternoon we traveled with the water district truck and dug and transported clay to the filter project HQ from the village of Oggo. Joohyun contracted for more clay to be transported by donkey cart from the village.The clay that we dug was put outside to dry. Clay that was already in the sun was sacked and transported to the neighboring mechanics shop to be run through the hammer mill. Arranged to make base plates for the filters.

Tuesday, September 23, 2008

Heidi Kilsby worked with the women potters screening sawdust. (Found a hedgehog underneath the sacks)

Worked with the neighboring mechanics shop. The mechanic welded legs on the ejection rod and made some filter base plates. The hammer mill screen was too small (.9mm). We had a screen with 1.5mm holes put on the hammer mill and set some of the water district workers to mill clay. I think that the screen may still be too small but the clay that is now dry seems to go through. The hammer mill is a fixed hammer design and not quite as noisy as

Flail types.

The first clay was transported by cart and put out to dry,

We prepared a first mix to test the press and realized that the hydraulic jack that had been purchased was too tall for the press. In the afternoon we attempted to find a smaller 20-ton jack but in the end it was easier to purchase a 6-ton and then exchange it with the larger 20-ton to complete each filter. We pressed a filter successfully. Our plan is to now prepare the first batch of filters in the series- this will be the 50/50 mix.

50/50 clay-sawdust by volume equates to- 85.6% clay 14.4% sawdust by weight. This 50/50 mix was given the mark- #1 in iron oxide

Single Filter sample is:

Clay 5992 gr85.6%

Sawdust 1008gr 14.4%

Total7000 gr100%

Water 2500 gr.

This mix was somewhat wet-

We evaluated the cost of the clay based on 160 sacks which will be delivered to the workshop at a cost of 70,000 cfa/$152 – Per sack= 438cfa/. 95cents

Wednesday September 24th, 2008

In the morning I conducted instruction in the mixing and pressing of filters with the team. The team included our two women potters from the village of Ogo.

I taught the two women first and with the help of Je-Min, Joohyun and Heidi we made sure that the women had the first chance to learn the process. Only then did we start the training with the men from the Department of hydrology who are in the filter team.

We formed a total of 15 Mix #1 Filters mostly from 2-6pm.

In the night a torrential thunderstorm came through the area and poured rain. This was unfortunate as most of the clay was outside drying at the time. We also lost clay that had been hammer milled and not covered.

Thursday September 25, 2008

Brought the computer into the workshop and met with the mason to begin on the kiln. I guided him through the construction process step by step until he felt confident.

Heidi Kilsby and Je-Min worked with the filter crew making the next mix- ( #2)

They were able to form the full 15 mixes over the course of the day.

Mix #2 Represents 20% more sawdust in comparison with mix #1

Mix#2-

Clay 5790 gr82.7%

Sawdust 1210gr 17.3%

Total7000 gr100%

Water 2500 gr.

In the afternoon we worked to develop a system to quickly prepare mortar for building the kiln using what clay we have as we don t want to use hammer milled dry clay as it is scarce. We prepared some mortar using a drill with an agitator but the clay was difficult to blend into a mortar. We worked with the mason and lined out the base of the kiln and then set the base bricks in place.

We will need to organize a way to burn waste oil and we will need some wood.

Friday September 26, 2008

This morning I was working with the mason on the kiln fireboxes. We had hydrology workshop workers working with the Je-Min and Heidi Kilsby forming filters. I went to make a brick chisel with the neighboring welder.

In forming one of the filters the male mold caved in at the base. When I looked at the casting it appeared to be turned out too thin but the mix was also quite dry.

We spent most of the rest of the day trying to figure out how to repair the mold and in the end we were introduced to a master welder machinist who just happened to have experience with aluminum. He also had aluminum welding rod. He re welded and then resurfaced the mold. We then cast two inches of cement in the bottom of the mold. Tomorrow we will have the mechanic cut a steel disc to insert in the base weld a 5 cm diameter pipe up right on top and them another larger plate at the top of the mold. This will be a kind of interior support for the mold, which we hope will prevent it from collapsing again.

Saturday September 27th 2008

We spent much of the day repairing the mold. We were able to cast cement in the male mold base and then Joohyun worked with the neighboring mechanic and welded up a brace and installed it inside the mold and we then bolted in to the press. We then cast 6 filters and compared them to the filters before the mold broke and found that they were the same. I bought a radio for the workers at the site.

At the same time I worked with the mason and he completed the base of the kiln. We received all the remaining brick from Dakar, so we are ready to work on the kiln and the press on Monday.

Oita Press article

Yesterday (2/19) I met up with an old friend here in Oita (Japan) who works for Oita press. We spoke for well over two hours he was interested in our water filter research and my Japanese newspaper class I prepared in China using their newspaper and their video site. I referenced both the English and Japanese/Chinese PWB websites. I am not sure when the article will be published but it may lead to more interest from outside Canada.

Pororsity Tests

Pororsity Tests*-150 to 200 gram Sections of fired filters were cut out of the lip, weighed, soaked for 24 hours and then re-weighed to evaluate.

Ceramic Water Filter Test Batch No. 1
Thursday January 18, 2007
Pororsity Test*- 38.8%
******

Ceramic Water Filter Test Batch No. 2
Saturday January 20th, 2007
Pororsity Test*- 32.2%
Mix Proportion represents 10% less sawdust than mix No. 1

******

Ceramic Water Filter Test Batch No. 3
January 22, 2007
Pororsity Test*- 34.5%
Mix Proportion represents 20% less sawdust than mix No. 1

******

Ceramic Water Filter Test Batch No. 4
January 24, 2007
Pororsity Test*- 45.6%
Mix Proportion represents 10% more sawdust than mix No. 1
******
Ceramic Water Filter Test Batch No. 5
January 25, 2007
Pororsity Test*- 49.7%
Mix Proportion represents 20% more sawdust than mix No. 1

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