A Study of Ceramic Pot Filters Made From Clay Body and Sawdust

Journal of Resources Development and Management www.iiste.org
ISSN 2422-8397 An International Peer-reviewed Journal
Vol.45, 2018

Adeyemi Samson Adeleke Kamar Taiwo Oladepo* Julius Olatunji Jeje
Department of Civil Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Abstract
As a follow-up of an earlier effort to produce ceramic pot filter from locally available materials, studies were carried out towards the development of the filter from clay, laterite and sawdust. As measured by flow rate and
water quality tests, the filter having 45% sawdust and 55% clay body by volume was adjudged the best having satisfied the acceptable flow rate (between 1 and 2 litres/hour) and water quality (turbidity less than 5 NTU); in addition, the removal efficiency of suspended solids was 94%.

Keywords: Atamora Pottery Centre, turbidity, suspended solids, laterite, ceramic mould, slurry

Suitability of Using Ipetumodu Potter’s Clay for the Production of Ceramic Pot Filters

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology
22(6): 1-10, 2017; Article no.CJAST.34740
Previously known as British Journal of Applied Science & Technology
ISSN: 2231-0843, NLM ID: 101664541

Kamar Taiwo Oladepo1*, Sunday Oluwatosin Fajuke1
and Adedayo Samson Ojo1
1Department of Civil Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Authors’ contributions
This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Author KTO designed the study and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. Authors SOF and ASO managed the experimental work and prepared the tables. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Article Information
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34740
Editor(s):
(1) Saeed Khorram, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Cyprus.
Reviewers:
(1) A. J. Varkey, University of Swaziland, Swaziland.
(2) Rafael Marín Galvín, Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.
(3) Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis, UNESP, Brazil.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/20337

Abstract:

Ceramic filtration is one of the household water treatment methods of providing potable water to rural dwellers in developing nations. This study reports an effort to produce ceramic pot filters from locally available clay using rice husk and sawdust as the combustible materials; the fractions of the combustible material used in preparing the pots were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by volume.
The filters were tested for flow rate and effectiveness in the removal of turbidity, suspended, dissolved and total solids. The filter that contains 20% rice husk was found to be the most efficient because of its acceptable flow rate and effluent water quality; the first-hour flow rate was 1.66 litres per second while the turbidity of the effluent was reduced from 38 NTU to 4 NTU after five hours of filtration. The efficiency of suspended solids removal ranged between 67 and 89%. The next phase of the study, which is in progress, involves the construction of a hydraulic press to facilitate the production of the filters in a sustainable manner.

Production of Water Filter from Porcelanite by Dry pressing

Diyala Journal for Pure Science

Enas Muhi Hadi* and Safa Luay Jasim
Applied Sciences Department – University of Technology – Baghdad – Iraq 2020

Volume: 17, Issue: 1, January 2021
Manuscript Code: 532B

P-ISSN: 2222-8373
E-ISSN: 2518-9255

Abstract
Filtration is the process of removing suspended objects from the fluid by passing it through a porous filter. In this study porous ceramic water filter was preparation from Iraqi local porcelanite and Iraqi white kaolin with ratio (10%) as a binding material, and natural additives )wheat flakes( with ratio (5,10,15,20,25, and 30) %. Ceramic materials used in the manufacture
of the filter are environment – friendly materials and harmless. Filter is not expensive and easy to prepare, the specimens were formed by dry pressing then fired at (1200) ˚C, to evaluation of prepared filters the following tests were performed, linear shrinkage, loos in mass, apparent porosity, water absorption, apparent density, permeability as physical properties, compressive strength and diametrical strength as mechanical properties. The result shows that the linear shrinkage decreased to 0.6 %, loos in mass increased to 24.25 %, apparent porosity increased to 55%, water absorption increased to 50.99%, apparent density decreased to 1.07(g/cm3), permeability increased to 0.131(cm2/ bar. min), compressive strength decreased to 1 (MPa) and diametrical strength decreased to 3 (MPa) with adding ratio (30%) of wheat flakes (W.F), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using to studying the microstructures which showed homogenies distribution of pores form a net in filter, adding wheat flakes with (30) % give highest pores.

Effects of Sawdust and Rice husk Additives on Physical Properties of Ceramic Filter

Journal of University of Babylon, Engineering Sciences, Vol.(26), No.(1): 2018.

Majid. Muhi Shukur Mohsin Abbas Aswad Saba Mohamed Bader
College of Materials Engineering, Babylon of University
majidalmuqdadi@gmail.com Mohsin.Aswad@gmail.com saba.mohamed.bader@gmail.com

Abstract
Two processes were employed for forming, specifically, slip casting and semi-dry press were used to manufacture ceramic filters from local raw materials, red clay and combustible materials (sawdust and rice husk). Different proportions of additives were used as pores forming agents to create porosity in ceramic filter. Dried filters were fired at temperature to 1000°C.
It was found that the forming technique and additives have great effect on the physical properties of the produced ceramic filters. The slip casting technique was more suitable procedure for producing a porous ceramic filter. As well as, porosity increased as percentage of the combustible materials increased.
Keywords: Ceramic Filter, Combustible Material, Porosity.

Mechanical, Microstructural and Mineralogical Analyses of Porous Clay Pots Elaborated with Rice Husks

Yeri Dah-Traoré, Lamine Zerbo, Mohamed Seynou*, Raguilnaba Ouedraogo
Laboratory of Molecular and Materials Chemistry, Chemistry Department, University Ouaga 1 Professor Joseph KI-ZERBO,
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 2018, 6, 257-270
http://www.scirp.org/journal/jmmce
ISSN Online: 2327-4085
ISSN Print: 2327-4077

Abstract
This paper deals with the elaboration of porous ceramic pots with raw clay
materials and rice husks for water filtration. The basic raw clays have been
mixed with rice husks at different ratio 10% and 15% weight (wt) and sintering
at 1200˚C, 1300˚C and 1400˚C for 30 minutes. The elaborated pots have
been tested for their densification properties and filtration flow. The mineralogy
and microstructure of pot have been also studied to explain the different
results. The pot with 10% wt rice husks and sintering at 1300˚C during 30
minutes presents a sufficient porosity and mechanical strength to be used for
water filtration.

Identification of Montmorillonite (smectite)

Clay Minerals (1971) 9, I.
A PLASTICITY CHART AS AN AID TO THE
IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT
OF INDUSTRIAL CLAYS
J. A. BAIN
Institute of Geological Sciences, 64-78 Gray’s Itvt Road, London WCI
(Read at the Spring 1970 meeting of the Clay Minerals Group
and the Basic Science Section of the British Ceramic Society, at
CambrMge; Receh’,ed 27 June 1970).

Mineralogical and physicochemical characterization of Ngaye alluvial clays (Northern Cameroon) and assessment of its suitability in ceramic production

Soureiyatou Fadil-Djenaboua, Paul-Désiré Ndjigui a, Jean Aimé Mbey b,c,∗
a Department of Earth Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon b Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon c Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux, Université de Lorraine, UMR 7360, 15 Avenue du Charmois, B.P. 40, F-54501
Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex, France

Original Article: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S2187076414000992/1-s2.0-S2187076414000992-main.pdf?_tid=e47ac0d8-3008-4c40-b009-c3dc6bec9a85&acdnat=1523718815_3099bd4bb01beeeaeec02b561e4d4d82

https://ac.els-cdn.com/S2187076414000992/1-s2.0-S2187076414000992-main.pdf?_tid=e47ac0d8-3008-4c40-b009-c3dc6bec9a85&acdnat=1523718815_3099bd4bb01beeeaeec02b561e4d4d82

Characterization and assessment of Saudi clays raw material at different area

Q. Mohsen a, A. El-maghraby a,b,*
a Materials and Corrosion Lab., Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
b Ceramic Department, National Research Center, Tahrir Str., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Received 7 April 2010; accepted 10 June 2010
Available online 17 June 2010

Original Article at: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S1878535210000675/1-s2.0-S1878535210000675-main.pdf?_tid=b25c8c8f-9e94-47d8-b49c-bc1573e80ebc&acdnat=1523718442_6d0117e6c45225279dedb15e74b53348

Assessment of saudi clays by various methods

DEVELOPMENT OF A CERAMIC WATER FILTER FOR NEPAL

DEVELOPMENT OF A CERAMIC WATER FILTER FOR NEPAL
by
Robert W. Dies
Bachelor of Applied Science
University of British Columbia, Canada, 2001
Submitted to the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
at the
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
June 2003

© 2003 Robert Dies.
All right reserved.
The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and distribute publicly paper and electronic copies of this thesis document in whole and in part.

 

Abstract

Countries like Nepal face tough challenges in terms of providing safe, clean drinking water for their citizens. The World Health Organization estimates that nearly 5 million people in Nepal lack access to safe drinking water while globally, 1.1 billion lack access to improved water supplies. Point-of-use water treatment technologies, such as household ceramic water filters, offer an affordable and effective means of treating water to standards suitable for drinking. The fact that ceramic water filters can be manufactured and produced by local ceramists with local materials makes ceramic filters particularly attractive as a point-of-use treatment technology that is affordable, appropriate, and sustainable.

This thesis examines existing ceramic water filter technologies, production processes, and methods for bringing a low-cost ceramic water filter to market in Nepal. Three types of disk filters and five types of candle filters are evaluated in terms of microbiological removal efficiency and flow rate. A red-clay grog disk filter coated with colloidal silver and three of the five candle filters (Katadyn􀀀 Ceradyn, Katadyn􀀀 Gravidyn, and the Hari Govinda white-clay candle filter capped on both ends) also coated with colloidal silver, performed the best in terms of microbiological removal efficiency (>98%) and flow rate (ranging from 641 mL/hr/candle (Ceradyn) to 844 mL/hr/candle (Gravidyn)).

In addition to filter testing, a guideline for developing a ceramic water filter in preparation for bringing a product to market is presented, along with a discussion on the importance of laboratory and field testing to ensure overall product performance. A step-by-step summary of the production process is also presented along with a comparison of the theoretical flow rate through a candle filter versus a disk filter. Recommendations for future work include testing and modifying the current disk-filter prototype design and research on the most appropriate filter element for the proposed prototype.

Download (PDF, 3.1MB)

 

Firing Temperature and Shrink Tests

CWF Clay Test
Test tiles 2cmx10cmx0.5cm

 

 

The first round of tiles for the filter clay temperature and shrinkage tests. Over 60 tiles to test at 925 950, 975, and 1000 degrees Celsius. We were sent between 250 and 500 grams of each sample, which turned out to be a little small. It took 100grams to make 4 tiles 2cmx10cmx5mm thick. and each time the particle analysis test was preformed we used 100grams as well. The particle analysis test takes 24hours to complete, and the firings about 6 hours, not to mention the prep and wait times. Our scale turned out to be giving bad readings so it threw off a lot of the data we collected. now we begin again.

What Makes an Efficient Ceramic Water Filter?

An important but brief study was published last year by individuals working with the RDIC factory in Cambodia to find what factors make a more efficient ceramic water filter. In this study several empirical tests were preformed to investigate the relationships between filter mix ratios and firing schedules. Perhaps the most relevant results demonstrated by these tests demonstrated the lack of correlation between flow rate and bacterial removal efficiency. In the test, filter discs ranging from 2 to 18 liters per hour showed similar e-coli removal efficacy.

This has long been suspected in the industry where standard flow rate best practices specify a 1.5 to 3 liter range of acceptability. These flow rates were set in an attempt to ensure that new factories making filters were producing effective ceramic water filters without the ability to effectively test their real ability to remove bacteria.

Other Tendencies of Efficient Ceramic Water Filters

  • Increasing burnout to clay ratio seems to increase flow rate while reducing strength
  • Firing to a higher temperature may increase flow rates, (it is assumed that firing higher increases pore size)
  • Increasing firing temperature may result in a stronger filter.
  • Firing higher seemed to reduce bacterial removal effectively, but the correlation was weak.
  • There is strong variation in flow rates of filters formed in wet or dry season.
  • Similar flow rates can be achieved by 1: Increasing burnout to clay ratio and reducing burnout particle size 2: Reducing burnout to clay ratio and increasing burnout particle size.


This study clearly presents an argument for further testing of these same variables to produce a more efficient ceramic water filter.

The onus is now on each factory to further develop their manufacturing practices. If the established best practices are to be modified on a case by case basis it should only be by careful experimentation and with the partnership of an independent monitoring agency to ensure that filters being produced meet minimum bacterial removal standards.

Although these results direct us towards a path of study that develops efficient ceramic water filters, any operation in the manufacturing process which relies on additional mechanical or technological resources also removes a layer of appropriateness to the ceramic water filter technology as a whole.

Imagine, for instance, that to make a more effective filter we find that burnout must be screened to finer tolerance. The factory in Somalia must then find a new reliable source a new mesh for their screening machines. The mesh they are currently using comes from out of the country and is very expensive and difficult to obtain. I argue that although the finer mesh would result in a more effective filter, if the basic standards were to change to reflect the greater efficiency it would reduce the appropriateness of the technology as a whole.

Development of a more effective filter is a part of factory scalability, once production of a basic filter has been stabilized a factory is ready to begin the process of improvements. These improvements will be determined by the local environment. After all, there are plenty of more effective filters on the market when cost, manufacturing limitations, and community adaptability are removed from the qualifications.

Studies such as these are important for us to better understand the path ahead with regard to improvement/changes to ceramic water filter production practices. That said, many of the studies assessing these practices are conducted in research facilities using laboratory methods. While this is a necessary first step, it must be followed by a replication of the results in a working filter factory. If this was a part of all academic research there would be a lot less ambiguity.

Link to original study:
Isabelle Gensburger – October 2011
http://potterswithoutborders.com/2012/07/investigation-of-the-critical-parameters-in-the-production-of-ceramic-water-filters/

Investigation of the Critical Parameters in the Production of Ceramic Water Filters

Isabelle Gensburger

October 2011

The flow rate can be increased by:
1. increasing the porosity of the filter, by increasing the quantity of burn-out material in the clay mix; and
2. increasing the pore size, either by

changing the particle size distribution of the burnout material, or by

changing the maximum firing temperature.

The bacteria removal effectiveness is only compromised when increasing the pore size

Download (PDF, 1.08MB)

Batch Consistency – Ceramic Pot Water Filters

At Potters Without Borders our focus is on the transfer of skills required to manufacture strong, effective ceramic pot water filters. Manufacturing filters as an appropriate technology requires the utilization of locally sourced skills and raw materials. For technicians, the main challenge is to go through the process required to develop a working filter body within a short time, using greatly variable materials. Although these materials may differ between factories, it is very important to maintain batch consistency when selecting materials for what is essentially a health product.

Establishing a reliable mixture of clay, burnouts, and accessory materials requires a period of testing and troubleshooting. Although working mixtures have been established in other factory locations, the information gained from these experiments only give us a general idea of where to start. It is not only necessary to begin factory production with a lengthy testing period, but every time a new batch of raw materials comes into the factory, testing must be done to make sure they are of consistent source and quality.

Developing a system of record-keeping and filter numbering is a critical aspect of manufacture troubleshooting. Factories that have been in production for years discover, suddenly, peculiar changes in filter functioning or appearance. By going back through the logs we can discover if the change occured because of a change of material sourcing, or a firing schedule fluctuation.

When selecting a source of raw materials, one must consider that it is a finite resource. A feasability study attempts to identify problems of inconsistant availablilty, contaminated sources, or insufficient material for the lifetime of the factory. The variable nature of naturally sourced materials makes it impossible to produce an identical product every time, but following certain procedures allows us to produce a greater number of filters which fall within the range of acceptability.

Production protocols which have been extablished in the first months of setup should be recorded and maintained. Any improvements, or changes to manufacturing procedures must be recorded and re-produced through several operating cycles in order to be proven.

Finally, we must realize that producing a homogenous filter is beyond the scope of appropriate technology as it applies to these filters. What we want is to produce an effective filter as simply as possible with locally sourced materials and abilities. Consistency in materials, sourcing, and testing increases the percentage of effective filters in each production cycle.

Ceramic Water Filters – Batch Proportions


The first four filters from the PWB filter press. All produced using 50-50 mix of clay and sawdust. From left to right are, numbers: 1/18/07-4, 1/18/07-1, 1/18/07-2, 1/18/07-3. Details as follows:

PWB Filter Batch Tests:

Ceramic Water Filter Test Batch No. 1
Thursday January 18, 2007

Mix Proportions @ approximately 50-50 by volume
Plainsman Red Earth Clay 44lbs.
Screened Sawdust 7lbs.
Water 21 lbs 11.5 oz. (42.55%)
(62.31 lbs total mix used for 4 filters or 15.58 lbs per filter)

Clay and Sawdust were placed in mixer and mixed for 10 minutes. Water was added and mixed a further 10 minutes.

20lbs. 3 oz. of the resulting mix was used as a charge for each filter.

Four filters were made from this mix and were marked with Iron oxide with the date.

These tests are forthcomming:

Ceramic Water Filter Test Batch No. 2
Saturday January 20th, 2007
Plainsman Red Earth Clay 44lbs.
Screened Sawdust 6lbs.4.8oz
Water as needed (20 lbs )
Mix Proportion represents 10% less sawdust then mix No. 1

Ceramic Water Filter Test Batch No. 3
Date to be set
Plainsman Red Earth Clay 44lbs.
Screened Sawdust 5lbs. 9.6oz
Water as needed (20 lbs )
Mix proportion represents 20% less sawdust than mix No. 1.

Ceramic Water Filter Test Batch No. 4
Date to be set
Plainsman Red Earth Clay 44lbs.
Screened Sawdust 7lbs. 11.2oz
Water as needed (20 lbs )
Mix Proportion represents 10% more sawdust then mix No. 1

Ceramic Water Filter Test Batch No. 5
Date to be set
Plainsman Red Earth Clay 44lbs.
Screened Sawdust 8lbs. 6.4oz
Water as needed (20 lbs )
Mix Proportion represents 20% more sawdust then mix No. 1

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