A Study of Ceramic Pot Filters Made From Clay Body and Sawdust

Journal of Resources Development and Management www.iiste.org
ISSN 2422-8397 An International Peer-reviewed Journal
Vol.45, 2018

Adeyemi Samson Adeleke Kamar Taiwo Oladepo* Julius Olatunji Jeje
Department of Civil Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Abstract
As a follow-up of an earlier effort to produce ceramic pot filter from locally available materials, studies were carried out towards the development of the filter from clay, laterite and sawdust. As measured by flow rate and
water quality tests, the filter having 45% sawdust and 55% clay body by volume was adjudged the best having satisfied the acceptable flow rate (between 1 and 2 litres/hour) and water quality (turbidity less than 5 NTU); in addition, the removal efficiency of suspended solids was 94%.

Keywords: Atamora Pottery Centre, turbidity, suspended solids, laterite, ceramic mould, slurry

Suitability of Using Ipetumodu Potter’s Clay for the Production of Ceramic Pot Filters

Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology
22(6): 1-10, 2017; Article no.CJAST.34740
Previously known as British Journal of Applied Science & Technology
ISSN: 2231-0843, NLM ID: 101664541

Kamar Taiwo Oladepo1*, Sunday Oluwatosin Fajuke1
and Adedayo Samson Ojo1
1Department of Civil Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Authors’ contributions
This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Author KTO designed the study and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. Authors SOF and ASO managed the experimental work and prepared the tables. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Article Information
DOI: 10.9734/CJAST/2017/34740
Editor(s):
(1) Saeed Khorram, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Cyprus.
Reviewers:
(1) A. J. Varkey, University of Swaziland, Swaziland.
(2) Rafael Marín Galvín, Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.
(3) Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis, UNESP, Brazil.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/20337

Abstract:

Ceramic filtration is one of the household water treatment methods of providing potable water to rural dwellers in developing nations. This study reports an effort to produce ceramic pot filters from locally available clay using rice husk and sawdust as the combustible materials; the fractions of the combustible material used in preparing the pots were 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% by volume.
The filters were tested for flow rate and effectiveness in the removal of turbidity, suspended, dissolved and total solids. The filter that contains 20% rice husk was found to be the most efficient because of its acceptable flow rate and effluent water quality; the first-hour flow rate was 1.66 litres per second while the turbidity of the effluent was reduced from 38 NTU to 4 NTU after five hours of filtration. The efficiency of suspended solids removal ranged between 67 and 89%. The next phase of the study, which is in progress, involves the construction of a hydraulic press to facilitate the production of the filters in a sustainable manner.

Analyse des risques sanitaires dans la production de filtres à eau en céramique à Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 13(2): 1210-1221, April 2019
ISSN 1997-342X (Online), ISSN 1991-8631 (Print)
© 2019 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. 8081-IJBCS
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v13i2.49
Original Paper http://ajol.info/index.php/ijbcs

Mariette Bediakon GOKPEYA1,2*, Julie Kouakou SACKOU1,3, Jean Stéphane CLAON1,4,
Beneld Moh Chantal OKA1 et Luc Kouakou KOUADIO1,2
1Département de Santé Publique, Hydrologie et Toxicologie, UFR des sciences pharmaceutiques et
biologiques, Université Félix Houphouët-Boigny ; 22 BP 1306 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire.
2 Institut National d’Hygiène Publique, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire ; 01 BPV 14 Abidjan 01
3 Institut National de Santé Publique ; BP V 47 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.
4 Laboratoire d’Analyse et de Contrôle de la qualité de l’eau (LACQUE), Office National de l’Eau Potable,
Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire ; 04 BP 42 Abidjan 04.
*Auteur correspondant ; E-mail : kemonmariette@gmail.com; Tél:+225 57652442 ; 23 BP 434 Abidjan 23.

ABSTRACT
The use of ceramic filters for point-of-use water treatment is considered as a reliable approach to ensure the safety of drinking water supplies. So the association N Christ recently popularized in Côte d’Ivoire a filter called FILTRAO®. The need for quality assurance of this one led us to identify by HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) approach, the critical parameters of its manufacturing process. The study was conducted in Abidjan as part of the process of issuing a health certificate for FILTRAO®.

The HACCP approach was conducted at the seven-step filter production unit from the establishment of a HACCP team to the identification of Critical Control Points (CCPs). It shows that clay, sawdust and water are the raw materials used for the production of FILTRAO®. The manufacturing process was artisanal and the CCPs were at the stages of evaluating the quality of the clay, the mechanical treatment of the raw materials and the firing of the
ceramic pots. These results suggest that the HACCP plan can be adopted as a quality assurance approach to optimize the effectiveness and safety of FILTRAO®.
© 2019 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved

Production of Water Filter from Porcelanite by Dry pressing

Diyala Journal for Pure Science

Enas Muhi Hadi* and Safa Luay Jasim
Applied Sciences Department – University of Technology – Baghdad – Iraq 2020

Volume: 17, Issue: 1, January 2021
Manuscript Code: 532B

P-ISSN: 2222-8373
E-ISSN: 2518-9255

Abstract
Filtration is the process of removing suspended objects from the fluid by passing it through a porous filter. In this study porous ceramic water filter was preparation from Iraqi local porcelanite and Iraqi white kaolin with ratio (10%) as a binding material, and natural additives )wheat flakes( with ratio (5,10,15,20,25, and 30) %. Ceramic materials used in the manufacture
of the filter are environment – friendly materials and harmless. Filter is not expensive and easy to prepare, the specimens were formed by dry pressing then fired at (1200) ˚C, to evaluation of prepared filters the following tests were performed, linear shrinkage, loos in mass, apparent porosity, water absorption, apparent density, permeability as physical properties, compressive strength and diametrical strength as mechanical properties. The result shows that the linear shrinkage decreased to 0.6 %, loos in mass increased to 24.25 %, apparent porosity increased to 55%, water absorption increased to 50.99%, apparent density decreased to 1.07(g/cm3), permeability increased to 0.131(cm2/ bar. min), compressive strength decreased to 1 (MPa) and diametrical strength decreased to 3 (MPa) with adding ratio (30%) of wheat flakes (W.F), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using to studying the microstructures which showed homogenies distribution of pores form a net in filter, adding wheat flakes with (30) % give highest pores.

Mechanical, Microstructural and Mineralogical Analyses of Porous Clay Pots Elaborated with Rice Husks

Yeri Dah-Traoré, Lamine Zerbo, Mohamed Seynou*, Raguilnaba Ouedraogo
Laboratory of Molecular and Materials Chemistry, Chemistry Department, University Ouaga 1 Professor Joseph KI-ZERBO,
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 2018, 6, 257-270
http://www.scirp.org/journal/jmmce
ISSN Online: 2327-4085
ISSN Print: 2327-4077

Abstract
This paper deals with the elaboration of porous ceramic pots with raw clay
materials and rice husks for water filtration. The basic raw clays have been
mixed with rice husks at different ratio 10% and 15% weight (wt) and sintering
at 1200˚C, 1300˚C and 1400˚C for 30 minutes. The elaborated pots have
been tested for their densification properties and filtration flow. The mineralogy
and microstructure of pot have been also studied to explain the different
results. The pot with 10% wt rice husks and sintering at 1300˚C during 30
minutes presents a sufficient porosity and mechanical strength to be used for
water filtration.

Identification of Montmorillonite (smectite)

Clay Minerals (1971) 9, I.
A PLASTICITY CHART AS AN AID TO THE
IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT
OF INDUSTRIAL CLAYS
J. A. BAIN
Institute of Geological Sciences, 64-78 Gray’s Itvt Road, London WCI
(Read at the Spring 1970 meeting of the Clay Minerals Group
and the Basic Science Section of the British Ceramic Society, at
CambrMge; Receh’,ed 27 June 1970).

Mineralogical and physicochemical characterization of Ngaye alluvial clays (Northern Cameroon) and assessment of its suitability in ceramic production

Soureiyatou Fadil-Djenaboua, Paul-Désiré Ndjigui a, Jean Aimé Mbey b,c,∗
a Department of Earth Sciences, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon b Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Yaoundé 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon c Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux, Université de Lorraine, UMR 7360, 15 Avenue du Charmois, B.P. 40, F-54501
Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex, France

Original Article: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S2187076414000992/1-s2.0-S2187076414000992-main.pdf?_tid=e47ac0d8-3008-4c40-b009-c3dc6bec9a85&acdnat=1523718815_3099bd4bb01beeeaeec02b561e4d4d82

https://ac.els-cdn.com/S2187076414000992/1-s2.0-S2187076414000992-main.pdf?_tid=e47ac0d8-3008-4c40-b009-c3dc6bec9a85&acdnat=1523718815_3099bd4bb01beeeaeec02b561e4d4d82

Characterization and assessment of Saudi clays raw material at different area

Q. Mohsen a, A. El-maghraby a,b,*
a Materials and Corrosion Lab., Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
b Ceramic Department, National Research Center, Tahrir Str., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Received 7 April 2010; accepted 10 June 2010
Available online 17 June 2010

Original Article at: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S1878535210000675/1-s2.0-S1878535210000675-main.pdf?_tid=b25c8c8f-9e94-47d8-b49c-bc1573e80ebc&acdnat=1523718442_6d0117e6c45225279dedb15e74b53348

Assessment of saudi clays by various methods

Pot Filter Arsenic Removal with Bone Char Attachment

Link to original article: https://ojs.library.queensu.ca/index.php/ijsle/article/view/5261/5150

A Sustainable and Simple Solution in Resource-poor Settings

Stephen D. Passman – Saint Louis University
Tyler J. White, MPH – Saint Louis University
Roger D. Lewis, PHD, CIH – Saint Louis University

CONCLUSIONS
The results suggest that the designed test filter has a significant potential for removing arsenic concentrations to below both WHO and EPA drinking water standards. In addition, the clay pot filter alone demonstrated substantial reduction in the concentration of arsenic. Further research must be done to investigate longevity and practicality of the test filter, and to explore the extent to which reduction in arsenic concentration is attributable to the additional bone char layer versus the clay pot filter.
Our research team aims to continue investigating the new design to maximize removal of arsenic, other harmful metals, and bacteria. Further development will also include finding the optimal pore size and surface area for maximum arsenic adsorption to the bone char layer and the clay pot itself. Given the variance in manufacture methods of different communities producing the clay pot filters, identifying physical characteristics that result in optimal arsenic adsorption can help promote best practices for improving the effectiveness of the filters. Finally, connecting with NGOs working in resource-poor communities is critical to improving POU clay pot water filters for enhanced filtration and better health outcomes.

Point-of-Use Water Filtration for Arsenic:

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Kiln Building: The Mani Kiln

Ceramic Pot Water Filter Kiln Building Resources

Building the Mani Kiln

Kiln building: The Mani kiln is an improved design for a wood burning kiln with a capacity of 50 ceramic pot water filters. Designed and distributed by Manny Hernandez – Northern Illinois University.

Complete drawings are included in the following PDF

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http://www.potterswithoutborders.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Building-the-Mani-Kiln-sm.pdf

Investigation of Ceramic Pot Filter Design Variables

Original link to document: http://www.filterpurefilters.org/pdf/Investigation%20of%20Ceramic%20Pot%20Filter.pdf

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Abstract

Investigation of Ceramic Filter Design Variables

Molly Klarman

Background: Over four billion cases of diarrhea occur worldwide each year that result in about 2.2 million deaths. Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as ceramic pot water filters, are one of four proven HWTS methods and have been shown to reduce diarrheal prevalence by an average of 45% among users in a randomized control field trial. Although ceramic filters have been proven effective for improving water quality, users and implementers often express concern over their inability to produce a sufficient quantity of water due to their slow flow rate of approximately 1-2 liters per hour (L/H). If flow rate could be increased by altering the current filter design, it would improve the ceramic pot filter’s viability as a scalable HWTS option.

Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine if the flow rate of ceramic pot filters could be increased without sacrificing filter effectiveness, in terms of bacterial removal, by examining the effect of altering specific design variables.

Methods: At the FilterPure ceramic manufacturing facility in the Dominican Republic, eight new filter designs were created by changing one of three design variables: 1) type of combustible material, 2) the ratio of combustible material to clay, or 3) the size of the screen used to sift combustible material. These eight new filter designs were produced in triplicate, along with six control filters. Local river water was passed through the filters daily, and they were tested once a week for five weeks for total coliforms (TC), turbidity, pH, conductivity, and flow rate. 

Results: The flow rate of all filter designs increased from the first to fifth week by an average of 44.1%. The filters made with alternative combustible materials (coffee husks and rice husks) had average flow rates of 9.9 and 5.0 L/H and average TC reductions of 96.1% and 97.6%. The control filters had an average flow rate of 0.95 L/H and average TC reduction of 99.8%. As the proportion of clay to combustible material decreased from 60% clay:40% sawdust to 40% clay:60%sawdust, the average flow rate increased from 0.38L/H to 5.9L/H and the percent reduction of TC decreased from >99.9% to 98.1%. Once initial flow rate increased above 1.7L/H, TC reductions fell below 99%.

Discussion:Minor alterations in filter design or raw materials can affect the performance of locally produced ceramic pot filters to thepoint where their ability to produce safe drinking water is compromised. The results of this research suggest that the maximum initial flow rate for a properly functioning FilterPure filter is 1.7 L/H. None of the alternative designs, that had faster flow rates had better TC reduction than the control filters. This indicates FilterPure should not produce filters with a clay to sawdust ratio lower than 53% clay to 47% sawdust and different combustible materials cannot be used interchangeably without first identifying optimal proportions.

 

 

The author of this thesis is:
NAME: Molly Klarman
Address: 32 Lovejoy RD
Andover, MA 01810
The advisor for this thesis is:
NAME: Christine Moe, PhD
Rollins School of Public Health
ADDRESS: 1518 Clifton Road
Atlanta, Georgia 30322
Other committee members for this thesis are:
NAME: Daniele Lantagne, PE
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
ADDRESS: 1600 Clifton Rd.
Atlanta, GA 30333

Molly Klarman
BA Lewis and Clark College

A thesis submitted to the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health and the Hubert
Department of Global Health
Rollins School of Public Health
Emory University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Master of Public Health
May, 2009

 

Open Source Receptacle Design – Vhembe

 

This open source receptacle design was the outcome of a Masters in Industrial Design, from the University of Johannesburgs Department of Industrial Design. The Vhembe Water filter receptacle was designed by Martin Bolton, who lectures at the University of Johannesburg.

This WIKI was created as an open-source showcase of Design Development, Design Sketches as well as all relevant Computer Generated Models which can be used for design refinement/ prototyping, tooling, mass production etc.

http://opensourceecology.org/wiki/Vhembe_Water_Filter

It is suggested that the MTech dissertation be read to allow for the understanding of how and why this product was developed. Furthermore, all field research, data gathering, data analysis and development of design requirements will be evident.

Design and Development of Ceramic Pot Water Filter Receptacle – Vhembe

Independent Appraisal of Ceramic Water Filtration Interventions in Cambodia: Final Report

Joe Brown and Mark Sobsey
University of North Carolina School of Public Health
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering
Submitted to UNICEF – Cambodia, 5 May 2006

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This study is an independent follow-up assessment of two large-scale implementations
of the household-scale ceramic water filteration after 2 and 4 years in use.
Approximately 1000 household filters were introduced by Resources Development
International (RDI) in Kandal Province from December 2003 and 1000+ filters by
International Development Enterprises (IDE) in Kampong Chhnang and Pursat provinces
from July 2002. The American Red Cross, CIDA, AusAID, UNICEF, and the World Bank
Development Marketplace Programme have supplied support to these two NGOs for
various parts of the production and distribution cycle of the filters.

In October 2003, IDE completed a field study of the ceramic water filtration devices after one year in use,
yielding promising results. The study used bacterial analyses of water samples and user
surveys to measure the performance, acceptance and use of ceramic water filtration devices in 12 rural villages.
The field study also assessed health improvements, time savings, and expense savings.
In August 2005, RDI completed a similar internal study for the filter distribution in Kandal
province, although findings from this assessment have not yet been released. The
present study follows up on these previous assessments and represents an independent
appraisal of the performance of the ceramic water filtration projects undertaken by IDE and RDI. It is
hoped that the findings produced will aid in assessing the water quality and health
impacts of the ceramic water filtration interventions to date and yield useful information on the
sustainability of the filters as implemented.

The study was carried out in two parts:

(1), a cross-sectional study of households
that originally received filters to determine uptake and use rates and associated factors;
and

(2), a nested longitudinal prospective cohort study of 80 households using filters and
80 control households to determine the microbiological effectiveness and health impacts
of the filters in household use. We measured (i) the continued use of the filters over
time as the proportion of filters still in use since introduction, and identified factors
potentially associated with filter uptake and long term use; (ii), the microbiological
effectiveness in situ of the filters still being used, as determined by the log10 reduction
values of the indicator bacterium E. coli; and (iii), the health impacts of the filters as
determined by a prospective cohort study using data on diarrheal disease prevalence
proportions among filter users versus non-users. We also collected a variety of other
survey data intended to elucidate successes and challenges facing the long-term
sustainability of this intervention in Cambodia. Stratified analyses, logistic regression,
and log-risk regression with Poisson extension of generalized estimating equations
(GEE) were employed in analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data to determine
factors associated with long term filter use and effectiveness of filters currently in use.

Major findings are that (i), the rate of filter disuse was approximately 2% per
month after implementation, due largely to breakages; (ii), controlling for time since
implementation, continued filter use over time was most closely positively associated
with related water, sanitation, and hygiene practices in the home, cash investment in the
technology by the household, and use of surface water as a primary drinking water
source; (iii), the filters reduced E. coli/100ml counts by a mean 95.1% in treated versus
untreated household water, although demonstrated filter field performance in some
cases exceeded 99.99%; (iv), microbiological effectiveness of the filters was not
observed to be closely related to time in use; (v), the filters can be highly effective
against microbial indicator organisms but may be subject to recontamination, probably
during regular cleaning; and (vi), the filters were associated with an estimated 46%
reduction in diarrhea in filter users versus non users (RR: 0.54, 95% CI 0.41-0.71).

http://www.potterswithoutborders.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Brown_and_Sobsey_2006_-_UNICEF_ceramic_filter_final_report.pdf

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Particle Size Distribution Analysis for Ceramic Pot Water filter production

Maria del Mar Duocastella and Kai Morrill

Potters Without Borders, Enderby, British Columbia, Canada – September 2012

Abstract: To develop a standard Particle Distribution Analysis testing protocol for use in Ceramic Pot Water Filter factories.

Introduction: Ceramic Pot Water filters are generally manufactured from sources of raw clay that vary in their consistency, some factories have begun using particle distribution analysis to qualify clay batches, as well as for blending multiple clay sources in order to maintain a more homogeneous clay body. In order to promote common testing methods between factories, we have begun herein to develop testing protocols that utilize widely available apparatus and materials. It is desirable to develop an effective test that is easily accessible to individuals with limited laboratory experience. This test must be able to be performed in extremely rudimentary conditions with limited resources while presenting reliably accurate results. We hope that by establishing stabilized testing standards specific to filter production the test data will be useful in comparing clay bodies between all participating filter factories. We find that difficulties in ensuring that identical lab equipment is used (cylinder dimensions) may make it difficult to accurately compare results across different factories. Several standards already exist for soil classification; particles can be classified into categories of Clay, Silt or Sand. These categories are demarcated recognizing that suspended particle size is in direct relationship to settling time. For our purposes, we established a baseline for classification by comparing other standards and examining the results of our tests.

Although it is useful for general comparisons to define the samples by the three categories (Sand, Silt, Clay), for the purposes of detailed clay sample comparison, it is better to collect data from various particle sizes, thus developing a curve of particle size distribution. For this reason we tested samples at 13 different time intervals: 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, and 24 hours. Having this expanded range of sample data allows us to compare samples in greater detail. These times were also chosen in order to complete the test within an 8 hour work day. *Note 1: Samples in Appendix 2 (Raw Data) which fall outside the standard testing procedure (Those prepared 24 or 48 hours before testing) were excluded from the final averages as there was significant variation in their results. It would have been interesting to use the results gathered to compare particle distribution results to burnout mixture ratios used in the participating factories. This proprietary information did not receive specific approval prior to publication.

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Based on a work at http://potterswithoutborders.com/?p=3499.

Best Practice Recommendations for Local Manufacturing of Ceramic Pot Filters for Household Water Treatment

The Ceramics Manufacturing Working Group
June 2011
First Edition

Recommended Citation: The Ceramics Manufacturing Working Group (2011). Best
Practice Recommendations for Local Manufacturing of Ceramic Pot Filters for Household Water
Treatment, Ed. 1. Atlanta, GA, USA: CDC.

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