Investigation of Ceramic Pot Filter Design Variables

Original link to document: http://www.filterpurefilters.org/pdf/Investigation%20of%20Ceramic%20Pot%20Filter.pdf

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Abstract

Investigation of Ceramic Filter Design Variables

Molly Klarman

Background: Over four billion cases of diarrhea occur worldwide each year that result in about 2.2 million deaths. Household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) methods, such as ceramic pot water filters, are one of four proven HWTS methods and have been shown to reduce diarrheal prevalence by an average of 45% among users in a randomized control field trial. Although ceramic filters have been proven effective for improving water quality, users and implementers often express concern over their inability to produce a sufficient quantity of water due to their slow flow rate of approximately 1-2 liters per hour (L/H). If flow rate could be increased by altering the current filter design, it would improve the ceramic pot filter’s viability as a scalable HWTS option.

Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine if the flow rate of ceramic pot filters could be increased without sacrificing filter effectiveness, in terms of bacterial removal, by examining the effect of altering specific design variables.

Methods: At the FilterPure ceramic manufacturing facility in the Dominican Republic, eight new filter designs were created by changing one of three design variables: 1) type of combustible material, 2) the ratio of combustible material to clay, or 3) the size of the screen used to sift combustible material. These eight new filter designs were produced in triplicate, along with six control filters. Local river water was passed through the filters daily, and they were tested once a week for five weeks for total coliforms (TC), turbidity, pH, conductivity, and flow rate. 

Results: The flow rate of all filter designs increased from the first to fifth week by an average of 44.1%. The filters made with alternative combustible materials (coffee husks and rice husks) had average flow rates of 9.9 and 5.0 L/H and average TC reductions of 96.1% and 97.6%. The control filters had an average flow rate of 0.95 L/H and average TC reduction of 99.8%. As the proportion of clay to combustible material decreased from 60% clay:40% sawdust to 40% clay:60%sawdust, the average flow rate increased from 0.38L/H to 5.9L/H and the percent reduction of TC decreased from >99.9% to 98.1%. Once initial flow rate increased above 1.7L/H, TC reductions fell below 99%.

Discussion:Minor alterations in filter design or raw materials can affect the performance of locally produced ceramic pot filters to thepoint where their ability to produce safe drinking water is compromised. The results of this research suggest that the maximum initial flow rate for a properly functioning FilterPure filter is 1.7 L/H. None of the alternative designs, that had faster flow rates had better TC reduction than the control filters. This indicates FilterPure should not produce filters with a clay to sawdust ratio lower than 53% clay to 47% sawdust and different combustible materials cannot be used interchangeably without first identifying optimal proportions.

 

 

The author of this thesis is:
NAME: Molly Klarman
Address: 32 Lovejoy RD
Andover, MA 01810
The advisor for this thesis is:
NAME: Christine Moe, PhD
Rollins School of Public Health
ADDRESS: 1518 Clifton Road
Atlanta, Georgia 30322
Other committee members for this thesis are:
NAME: Daniele Lantagne, PE
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
ADDRESS: 1600 Clifton Rd.
Atlanta, GA 30333

Molly Klarman
BA Lewis and Clark College

A thesis submitted to the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health and the Hubert
Department of Global Health
Rollins School of Public Health
Emory University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Master of Public Health
May, 2009

 

Open Source Receptacle Design – Vhembe

 

This open source receptacle design was the outcome of a Masters in Industrial Design, from the University of Johannesburgs Department of Industrial Design. The Vhembe Water filter receptacle was designed by Martin Bolton, who lectures at the University of Johannesburg.

This WIKI was created as an open-source showcase of Design Development, Design Sketches as well as all relevant Computer Generated Models which can be used for design refinement/ prototyping, tooling, mass production etc.

http://opensourceecology.org/wiki/Vhembe_Water_Filter

It is suggested that the MTech dissertation be read to allow for the understanding of how and why this product was developed. Furthermore, all field research, data gathering, data analysis and development of design requirements will be evident.

Design and Development of Ceramic Pot Water Filter Receptacle – Vhembe

Independent Appraisal of Ceramic Water Filtration Interventions in Cambodia: Final Report

Joe Brown and Mark Sobsey
University of North Carolina School of Public Health
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering
Submitted to UNICEF – Cambodia, 5 May 2006

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This study is an independent follow-up assessment of two large-scale implementations
of the household-scale ceramic water filteration after 2 and 4 years in use.
Approximately 1000 household filters were introduced by Resources Development
International (RDI) in Kandal Province from December 2003 and 1000+ filters by
International Development Enterprises (IDE) in Kampong Chhnang and Pursat provinces
from July 2002. The American Red Cross, CIDA, AusAID, UNICEF, and the World Bank
Development Marketplace Programme have supplied support to these two NGOs for
various parts of the production and distribution cycle of the filters.

In October 2003, IDE completed a field study of the ceramic water filtration devices after one year in use,
yielding promising results. The study used bacterial analyses of water samples and user
surveys to measure the performance, acceptance and use of ceramic water filtration devices in 12 rural villages.
The field study also assessed health improvements, time savings, and expense savings.
In August 2005, RDI completed a similar internal study for the filter distribution in Kandal
province, although findings from this assessment have not yet been released. The
present study follows up on these previous assessments and represents an independent
appraisal of the performance of the ceramic water filtration projects undertaken by IDE and RDI. It is
hoped that the findings produced will aid in assessing the water quality and health
impacts of the ceramic water filtration interventions to date and yield useful information on the
sustainability of the filters as implemented.

The study was carried out in two parts:

(1), a cross-sectional study of households
that originally received filters to determine uptake and use rates and associated factors;
and

(2), a nested longitudinal prospective cohort study of 80 households using filters and
80 control households to determine the microbiological effectiveness and health impacts
of the filters in household use. We measured (i) the continued use of the filters over
time as the proportion of filters still in use since introduction, and identified factors
potentially associated with filter uptake and long term use; (ii), the microbiological
effectiveness in situ of the filters still being used, as determined by the log10 reduction
values of the indicator bacterium E. coli; and (iii), the health impacts of the filters as
determined by a prospective cohort study using data on diarrheal disease prevalence
proportions among filter users versus non-users. We also collected a variety of other
survey data intended to elucidate successes and challenges facing the long-term
sustainability of this intervention in Cambodia. Stratified analyses, logistic regression,
and log-risk regression with Poisson extension of generalized estimating equations
(GEE) were employed in analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data to determine
factors associated with long term filter use and effectiveness of filters currently in use.

Major findings are that (i), the rate of filter disuse was approximately 2% per
month after implementation, due largely to breakages; (ii), controlling for time since
implementation, continued filter use over time was most closely positively associated
with related water, sanitation, and hygiene practices in the home, cash investment in the
technology by the household, and use of surface water as a primary drinking water
source; (iii), the filters reduced E. coli/100ml counts by a mean 95.1% in treated versus
untreated household water, although demonstrated filter field performance in some
cases exceeded 99.99%; (iv), microbiological effectiveness of the filters was not
observed to be closely related to time in use; (v), the filters can be highly effective
against microbial indicator organisms but may be subject to recontamination, probably
during regular cleaning; and (vi), the filters were associated with an estimated 46%
reduction in diarrhea in filter users versus non users (RR: 0.54, 95% CI 0.41-0.71).

http://www.potterswithoutborders.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Brown_and_Sobsey_2006_-_UNICEF_ceramic_filter_final_report.pdf

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Comparison of Silver Impregnated and Conventional Spigots in Ceramic Water Filters Devices

Marlyn Mendoza*, Monica Krakue** and Vinka Oyanedel-Craver*

*Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; **Department of Chemical Engineering

INTRODUCTION

Ceramic filters water filtres (CWF) are a promising point-of-use water treatment technology in the developing world that can be made with local materials and labor.  Currently CWFs are manufactured by pressing and firing a mixture of clay and a combustible material such as flour, rice husks, or sawdust prior to treatment with AgNPs.  The filter is formed using a filter press, air-dried, and fired in a flat-top kiln, increasing the temperature gradually to about 900 ˚C during an 8-h period.  This forms the ceramic material and combusts the sawdust, flour, or rice husk in the filters, making it porous and permeable to water.  After firing, the filters are cooled and impregnated with a silver solution (either AgNPs or silver nitrate) by either painting with, or dipping in (Rayner, 2009).  After painting with the antibacterial solution the ceramic component is commonly placed in a five gallons bucket. The contaminated water is placed inside the ceramic component from where it percolated through the porous matrix of the ceramic removing pathogenic microorganism (Oyanedel-Craver, 2008; Bielefeldt et al., 2009). The clean water drip into the plastic bucket where is stored and can be accessed through the spigot located at the bottom of the plastic receptacle. The CWF are capable to remove between 3 to 4 log of the microbial load in the influent water, however is has been observed that re-growth can happen after several month of usage (Kallman et al., 2012). The spigot has been identified as a potential sources of re-contamination of the purified water (Cohen, 2011).

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Design of Water Filter for Third World Countries

Louis Chan
Marcus Chan
Jingwen Wang
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
BACHELOR OF APPLIED SCIENCE
Date: March 26th, 2009
Supervisors: W. Cleghorn / J. Mills
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

Abstract
The residents in third world countries battle against waterborne diseases every day. It is a luxury
to have access to safe drinking water. However, it is extremely difficult to invest on a water filter
with minimal annual income. A low cost water filter can serve as a subsidy such that every
family can take advantage of this luxury. In this thesis, literature reviews on existing water
filters have been completed and design of a dual level water filter with ceramic and activated
carbon is developed. Water flow rate tests are carried out to optimize water filter design.
Further, the filter effectiveness in diminishing various contaminates is analyzed by a licensed
sampling laboratory. A manufacturing line to produce the dual water filters is proposed and the
cost of manufacturing a unit is calculated to be $1.53 USD, which is an affordable price for
people in third world countries. With a low cost water filter available, residents in the third
world countries could enjoy having safe drinking water and improve quality of life.

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Evaluating the impact of production variables on on the effluent water quality of Ceramic Pot Filters

Evaluating the impact of production variables on on the effluent water quality of Ceramic Pot Filters

April 10, 2011

Kristen Jellison, Julie Napotnick, Natalie Smith, Kyle Doup (Lehigh University)

Justine Rayner, Jesse Schubert (PATH)

Vinka Oyandel-Craver (University of Rhode Island

Daniele Lantagne (CDC, Harvard University)

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Current Practices in Manufacturing of Ceramic Pot Filters for Water Treatment

Current Practices in Manufacturing of
Ceramic Pot Filters for Water Treatment
by Justine Rayner
A research project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the
degree of Master of Science of Loughborough University
August 2009
Advisor: Brian Skinner, BSc, MSc, CEng, MICE
Co-Advisor: Daniele Lantagne, PE
Water, Engineering and Development Centre
Department of Civil and Building Engineering

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Optimizing Performance of Ceramic Pot Filters in Northern Ghana and Modeling Flow through Paraboloid-Shaped Filters

Optimizing Performance of Ceramic Pot Filters in Northern Ghana and Modeling Flow through Paraboloid-Shaped Filters
by
Travis Reed Miller
B.S. Environmental Engineering
State University of New York at Buffalo
SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
AT THE
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
June 2010
©2010 Travis Reed Miller. All rights reserved.

http://web.mit.edu/watsan/Docs/Student%20Theses/Ghana/Thesis%20FINAL%20Travis%20Reed%20Miller%205-24-10.pdf

 

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Quantification of the Lifetime of Ceramic Pot Filters

by L. A. Hubbel, (Department of Geological Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1400 N. Bishop Ave., 124 McNutt Hall, Rolla, MO 65409 E-mail: lhm7f@mst.edu) and A. C. Elmore, (Department of Geological Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1400 N. Bishop Ave., 124 McNutt Hall, Rolla, MO 65409 E-mail: elmoreac@mst.edu)

Document type: Conference Proceeding Paper
Part of: World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2012: Crossing Boundaries
Abstract: Ceramic pot filters (CPFs) are effective, low-cost household water treatment devices. CPF lifetime is assumed by the manufacturer to be one year; however, there are no definitive studies which quantify CPF lifetime. The objective of this preliminary research was to quantify the lifetime of a CPF in terms of the amount of water that can be filtered before the flow rate becomes unusable. Constant head flow rate testing, porosity testing and water quality testing were performed in a laboratory using three CPFs to establish baselines for comparison with field tests using six CPFs manufactured in Antigua, Guatemala. Interviews with 17 CPF users were performed in Guatemala to obtain information on their water and CPF usage. The limited laboratory and field testing showed that flow rate values decreased with increasing cumulative volumes of treated water. The field test data was compared to the laboratory data to estimate the volume of water that would be filtered before the flow rate decreased to an unusable rate. This volume was found to be approximately 1,500 L, which corresponds to a six-month time for a family of six using World Health Organization estimates of daily water consumption. The water quality data collected in the field showed that turbidity decreased after filtering through the CPFs while conductivity and hardness both increased slightly. This increase in conductivity and hardness may be due to rainwater being used as the water source, which typically has low mineral content with very little dissolved solids and hardness to begin with. The number of families interviewed is too small of a data set to provide conclusive results. But the anecdotal data collected from the interview process suggests that the subject families did not believe that a single filter could provide enough drinking water for a family for one year. The large number of CPFs in use throughout the world means that the technology has the potential to have a significant impact on large number of people, and it is recommended that a formal study involving large numbers of filters be conducted to quantitatively estimate CPF lifetimes.

http://cedb.asce.org/cgi/WWWdisplay.cgi?290199

Investigation of the Critical Parameters in the Production of Ceramic Water Filters

Isabelle Gensburger

October 2011

The flow rate can be increased by:
1. increasing the porosity of the filter, by increasing the quantity of burn-out material in the clay mix; and
2. increasing the pore size, either by

changing the particle size distribution of the burnout material, or by

changing the maximum firing temperature.

The bacteria removal effectiveness is only compromised when increasing the pore size

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LCA Comparison of Centralized Water Treatment Systems and In-Home Ceramic Water Filters in Bendekonde, Suriname

Luke Moilanen
Ashlee Vincent
Rabi Gyawali
Dr. John Gierke

May 18, 2012

Michigan Technological University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

A United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) survey reported that 75% of the 28 systems
surveyed no longer function (Webster and Roebuck, 2001). This technology has various aspects to
be considered when deciding upon implementation of such a system, one of which to be considered
in conjunction with reliability is environmental impact as compared with other water treatment
technologies currently available. One of the most technologically appropriate alternatives to centralized
water treatment systems for implementation in the interior Suriname is the utilization of ceramic filters
in individual homes of the community.

Economics might suggest that point-of-use ceramic filters would be financially advantageous over
centralized water treatment. Differences in environmental impacts are less obvious. On one hand, a
centralized system requires more materials but the energy requirements are low (solar) and practically
have no emissions. Ceramic filters require firing a kiln and mining and processing clay, which would
cause recurring emissions. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed to quantitatively measure
environmental impacts for the creation, transport, use, and disposal of a given product or process. The
goal of the LCA was to analyze individual steps in the product life cycle to provide an overall quantitative
measure such as energy consumption and/or global warming potential, as well as serve as a mechanism
from which individual steps within the product life cycle can be compared to determine which particular
step contributes the largest amount to the overall total.

 

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Study of sales of Kenyan water filters shows promise

PATH partners with local agency to explore new way to offer residents water filters

Clean water is scarce in Kenya’s Nyanza Province, located
on the shores of Lake Victoria. People in this region often
collect their drinking water from shallow wells, nearby
streams, or through rainwater catchment. The water
is often contaminated, leading to a high prevalence of
diarrheal disease in the region. To combat disease caused
by unsafe drinking water, PATH’s Safe Water Project has
been evaluating various distribution models for placing
water treatment devices in low-income households in
multiple countries.

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Criteria Report for Household Water Treatment Solutions

When are ceramic water filters appropriate?

Community Choices Tool for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Pacific Institute

Household Water Treatment Solutions Criteria Report
Criteria Used for Ranking Household Water Treatment Solutions
Below you can view information that clarifies how your individual answers to the questions impacted the Community Choices Tool’s
recommendations for technologies and approaches that are appropriate for your situation and needs.
NOTE: This demonstration prototype of the Community Choices Tool contains rankings for the few solutions we have in the database. We
envision that once fully developed, the Community Choices Tool will be able to evaluate and rank hundreds of technologies and approaches
for the entire WASH sector, and from those it will be able to create fully customized solutions for each user (rather than the static solutions it
has now).

Download (PDF, 32KB)

Improved but not necessarily safe: Water access and the Millennium Development Goals

By Robert Bain*, Jim Wright**, Hong Yang**, Steve Pedley^, Stephen Gundry*, and Jamie Bartram^^

*Water and Health Research Centre, University of Bristol, United Kingdom (UK); **University of Southampton, UK; ^University of Surrey, UK; ^^The Water Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States

“This work shows that interpretation of the MDG indicator as a surrogate for safe water can lead to substantial overestimates of the population using safe drinking-water and, consequently, also overestimates the progress made towards the 2015 MDG target. There are important policy implications – whilst progress has been made, adjusting for water quality shows that much of the world’s population still lacks access to safe water.”

 

 

 

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Arsenic removal for ceramic water filters

Journal of
Humanitarian
Engineering
Volume 1, Issue 1 – May 2012
ISSN 2200-4904

 

Mishant Kumar
Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Mishant.S.Kumar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: Arsenic in drinking water is a hazard to human health and is a known carcinogen
(Mass 1992). Resource Development International – Cambodia (RDIC) has researched, developed,
and manufactured simple ceramic water filters (CWF) which have proved to be extremely effective
in removing pathogens from water. These filters however, do not remove arsenic from water, which
exists in the source water at levels above the World Health Organisation (WHO) guideline of 10μg/L.
The aims of this literature based study were to investigate conventional and non-conventional
arsenic removal processes, and to discuss the options for applying an arsenic removal technology
to the CWFs produced by RDIC. It was found that conventional arsenic removal technologies are
difficult to implement in the context of household water treatment in a developing country. This
study suggested that non-conventional arsenic removal technologies shall be more effective and
that field studies must be undertaken to verify the success of such methods.

Ceramic, filter, arsenic, removal, household.

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MSABI Clay Filter Pots – Removal of iron and manganese from groundwater sources

Iron and Manganese are naturally occurring metals commonly found in both surface water and groundwater.

In January 2012, MSABI determined that a review of possible methods for the removal of iron and manganese from source water should be undertaken. It is important to note that, in accordance with WHO guidelines, in most naturally occurring concentrations (including the levels measured to date in the Kilombero District), iron and manganese do not pose a health risk in terms of human consumption. In point of fact, both iron and manganese are important elements for human consumption and are dietary requirements.

However, the general Kilombero community is largely unaware of this fact, and there is (anecdotally speaking) a broad suspicion of and aversion to the presence of iron and manganese in both potable and non-potable water sources. Water with high iron and manganese content is aesthetically less desirable, as it is likely to have a metallic taste if used for potable consumption, and may cause light brown staining if used for washing or other similar purposes.

Because MSABI water points access aquifers at depths of up to 30 metres below ground level (reaching into and sometimes through rock deposits), relatively high concentrations of iron and manganese are more likely to exist in MSABI water.

In February 2012, a relevant example relating to community perceptions of safe and unsafe drinking water with respect to the presence of iron and manganese was presented to the MSABI lab.

Excerpt from: Iron Removal Summary

Maji Safa kwa Afya Bora Ifakara Website

Storing Drinking-water in Copper-pots Kills Contaminating Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria

Storing Drinking-water in Copper-pots Kills Contaminating Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria

Abstract “Microbially-unsafe water is still a major concern in most developing countries. Although many water-purification methods exist, these are expensive and beyond the reach of many people, especially in rural areas. Ayurveda recommends the use of copper for storing drinking-water. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper-pot on microbially-contaminated drinking-water. The antibacterial effect of copper-pot against important diarrhoeagenic bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae O1, Shigella flexneri 2a, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, Salmonella enterica Typhi, and Salmonella Paratyphi is reported. When drinking-water (pH 7.83±0.4; source: ground) was contaminated with 500 CFU/mL of the above bacteria and stored in copper-pots for 16 hours at room temperature, no bacteria could be recovered on the culture medium. Recovery failed even after resuscitation in enrichment broth, followed by plating on selective media, indicating loss of culturability. This is the first report on the effect of copper on S. flexneri 2a, enteropathogenic E. coli, and Salmonella Paratyphi. After 16 hours, there was a slight increase in the pH of water from 7.83 to 7.93 in the copper-pots while the other physicochemical parameters remained unchanged. Copper content (177±16 ppb) in water stored in copper-pots was well within the
permissible limits of the World Health Organization. Copper holds promise as a point-of-use solution for microbial purification of drinking-water, especially in developing countries.”

 

Key words: Bacteria; Copper; Diarrhoea; Drinking-water; Vibrio cholerae; India

 

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Storing Drinking-water in Copper-pots Kills Contaminating Diarrhoeagenic Bacteria

Preventing Diarrheal Disease in Developing Countries: Proven Household Water Treatment Options

“The health consequences of inadequate water and sanitation services include an estimated 4 billion cases of diarrhea and 1.9 million deaths each year, mostly among young children in developing countries. Diarrheal diseases lead to decreased food intake and nutrient absorption, malnutrition, reduced resistance to infection, and impaired physical growth and cognitive development. Since 1996, a large body of work has been published that has examined the health impact of interventions to improve water quality at the point-of-use through household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS).

Five interventions – chlorination, solar disinfection, ceramic filtration, slow sand filtration, and PUR – have been proven to reduce diarrhea in users in developing countries and improve the microbiological quality of stored household water and are discussed below. The most appropriate HWTS option for a location depends on existing water and sanitation conditions, water quality, cultural acceptability, implementation feasibility, availability of HWTS technologies, and other local conditions. For more information, contact (email in document). Photos courtesy: PSI, PFP, Hydraid, EAWAG, P&G.”

Download Pdf: http://potterswithoutborders.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/CDC%201-pager-proven-new-logo.pdf

Use of Ceramic Water Filters in Cambodia

Ceramic filter pilot projects (2002-2006) in Cambodia have yielded promising results that suggest these
interventions can be effective in improving drinking water quality and can contribute to substantial
health gains in populations using them.

“Executive Summary
Household-scale ceramic filtration technology is considered among the most promising options for treating drinking water at the household level in developing countries (Lantagne 2001; Sobsey 2002; Roberts 2004). Its use is Cambodia is widespread and growing, with the involvement of local and international NGOs and government efforts that have been supported by UNICEF, WSP-Cambodia, and others. Although several different kinds of ceramic filters are used for household-scale water treatment worldwide, among the most widespread is that promoted by Potters for Peace, a US and Nicaragua-based NGO; the Cambodian version is known as the Ceramic Water Purifier (CWP). It has been used in Cambodia since its introduction in 2001. Based on early successes in Cambodia (Roberts 2004), further investment in the technology is planned by NGOs and the Cambodian government. Stakeholders identified evaluation of the CWP experience to date in the country as vital to inform the scale up process and to identify lessons learned in the first 4 years of production and implementation. Part of this evaluation was an independent study commissioned by UNICEF and WSP-Cambodia to critically examine two major implementation efforts to date in Cambodia undertaken by the two main producers, IDE and RDI. The goals of the study were to characterize the microbiological effectiveness and health impacts of the CWP in target populations, and to identify successes and potential challenges facing the scale-up and implementation of the technology. The results of the study and program recommendations are presented here.”

http://www.potterswithoutborders.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/926200724252_eap_cambodia_filter.pdf

A Field Study on the Use of Clay Ceramic Water Filters and Influences on the General Health in Nigeria

109-790-1-PB.pdf
Anand PLAPPALLY1, 3,*, Haoqian CHEN1,2, Wasiu AYINDE4, Samson ALAYANDE4, Andrew USORO1,7, Katie C. FRIEDMAN1,2, Enoch DARE4, Taiwo OGUNYALE6, Ismaiel YAKUB1,6
Megan LEFTWICH5, Karen MALATESTA2, Ron RIVERA8, Larry BROWN3, Alfred SOBOYEJO3
and Winston SOBOYEJO1,5

Read more on A Field Study on the Use of Clay Ceramic Water Filters and Influences on the General Health in Nigeria…

109-790-1-PB.pdf

Abstract
Field study and surveys were conducted to evaluate interdisciplinary parameters influencing the health of people using ceramic filters for water purification. A total of 52 families were distributed with filters at Eweje Village, Odeda local government area, Ogun State, Nigeria. Surveys contained questions related to hygiene, health, water source and treatment, socio-economic and educational status of people and their use of clay ceramic water filters. Several parameters were studied including time of use of water filter, maintainability, education, societal economics, and social the status of the people using the filters. There was interdependence between these parameters. Health of the Eweje village community was greatly influenced by the number of people using the filter, the time of filter usage, education, maintainability, access to medical facilities, and economic status. A novel multi parameter multivariate regression approach clearly enumerates the hierarchy of the effects of the influencing variables on the health of Eweje community. Apart from population and time of filter use, access to medical services also influenced health of this rural community.
Key words: Rural, Health, Water, Filters, Education, Regression, Africa

Anand PLAPPALLY1, 3,*, Haoqian CHEN1,2, Wasiu AYINDE4, Samson ALAYANDE4, Andrew USORO1,7, Katie C. FRIEDMAN1,2, Enoch DARE4, Taiwo OGUNYALE6, Ismaiel YAKUB1,6
Megan LEFTWICH5, Karen MALATESTA2, Ron RIVERA8, Larry BROWN3, Alfred SOBOYEJO3
and Winston SOBOYEJO1,5

1Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), 70 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA;
2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Olden Street, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.
3FABE Department, The Ohio State University, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus, OH 43210, USA;
4University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, Africa;
5Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton NJ, 08544, USA;
6Eweje Village, Nigerian Ministry of Health, Federal Government of Nigeria, Africa;
7Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA;
8Potters for Peace, Ceramic Water Filter Program, Managua, Nicaragua;
Received: 29.10.2010 Accepted: 22.2.1011 Published: 19.5.2011

 

Scaling Up Household Water Treatment Among Low-Income Populations

Who-report-on-scaling-up.pdf
Prepared by:
Thomas F. Clasen, JD, PhD
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Public Health and Environment
Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health
World Health Organization
Geneva 2009

SUMMARY
Providing safe, reliable, piped-in water to every household is an essential goal, yielding optimal health gains while contributing to the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for poverty reduction, nutrition, childhood survival, school attendance, gender equity and environmental sustainability. While strongly committed to this goal and to incremental improvements in water supplies wherever possible, the World Health Organization (WHO) and others have called for targeted, interim approaches that will accelerate the heath gains associated with safe drinking-water for those whose water supplies are unsafe…

Read more on Scaling Up Household Water Treatment Among Low-Income Populations…

Who-report-on-scaling-up.pdf
Prepared by:
Thomas F. Clasen, JD, PhD
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Public Health and Environment
Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health
World Health Organization
Geneva 2009

SUMMARY
Providing safe, reliable, piped-in water to every household is an essential goal, yielding optimal health gains while contributing to the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for poverty reduction, nutrition, childhood survival, school attendance, gender equity and environmental sustainability. While strongly committed to this goal and to incremental improvements in water supplies wherever possible, the World Health Organization (WHO) and others have called for targeted, interim approaches that will accelerate the heath gains associated with safe drinking-water for those whose water supplies are unsafe…

University of Nicaragua Data

Univ-of-nicaragua-study.pdf

Brief translation Of Results

THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF NICARAGUA
Center for the Research of Aquatic Resources of Nicaragua
REPORT ON THE EFFICEINCY OF CERAMIC FILTERS IN THE REMOVAL OF ORANISISMS WHICH ARE INDICATORS OF
CONTAMINATED WATER (COLIFORMES, E. COLI AND ESTREPTOCOCOS FECALES).

Read more on University of Nicaragua Data…

Univ-of-nicaragua-study.pdf

Brief translation Of Results

THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF NICARAGUA
Center for the Research of Aquatic Resources of Nicaragua
REPORT ON THE EFFICEINCY OF CERAMIC FILTERS IN THE REMOVAL OF ORANISISMS WHICH ARE INDICATORS OF
CONTAMINATED WATER (COLIFORMES, E. COLI AND ESTREPTOCOCOS FECALES).

Marketing Safe Water Systems

Safewater-urs-heierli-1.pdf

WHY IT IS SO HARD TO GET SAFE WATER TO THE POOR – AND SO PROFITABLE TO SELL IT TO THE RICH
BY URS HEIERLI (Draft Version)

 

About this publication

Read more on Marketing Safe Water Systems…

Safewater-urs-heierli-1.pdf

WHY IT IS SO HARD TO GET SAFE WATER TO THE POOR – AND SO PROFITABLE TO SELL IT TO THE RICH
BY URS HEIERLI (Draft Version)

 

About this publication

Author: Urs Heierli is an economist (Ph.D., University of St. Gallen). From 1987 to 1999 he served as country director of SDC – the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation in Bangladesh and India. During a subsequent sabbatical, he wrote the study ‘Poverty Alleviation as a Business’ and then joined the Employment and Income Division at SDC head office in Berne. In November 2003, he launched his own consulting company, msd consulting (Markets, Sustainability and Development) in Berne, to focus further on the market creation approach to development.

Foreword: François Muenger, Senior Water Advisor, SDC

Peer review: Armon Hartmann, former Senior Water Advisor, SDC

Editor: Paul Osborn, Médiateurs, Netherlands

Photos: Urs Heierli, Population Services International (Waterguard), G. Allgood, Procter & Gamble (PUR Photos), Antenna Technologies (WATA photos), SODIS Foundation (SODIS new designs)

Design/layout:Isabelle Christ, Claudia Derteano

Copyright: SDC – Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Employment and Income Division / Urs Heierli (msd consulting), Berne

1st Edition: March 2008, printed in India

Copies: Hard copies are available from:
SDC Social Development Division (sodev@deza.admin.ch) and
SDC Employment and Income Division; (e-i@deza.admin.ch)

Electronic copies can be downloaded from:
www.deza.admin.ch/themes; www.poverty.ch/safewater; www.antenna.ch

Film clips: A companion CD with many film clips is in the back cover of this book. The clips are also available for download from www.poverty.ch/safewater.

This publication is supported by: Employment and Income Division and Social Development Division
SDC – Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
Freiburgstrasse 130
CH-3003 Berne
Switzerland

This publication is co-published by:
Antenna Technologies
29, rue de Neuchâtel
CH-1201 Geneva
Switzerland
www.antenna.ch

Analysis of Redart Clay in Filtron Water Filters

Redart-filter-tests-owu.pdf

Kristina Bogdanov, Assistant Professor, Fine Arts Department, Ohio Wesleyan University,
Delaware, Ohio
Emily Koly, BFA student, Fine Arts Department, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio

 

Abstract
One of the most commonly promoted, and used, water filters, in developing countries, is the Filtron ceramic filter. The most commonly used clay, in the production of the Filtron ceramic filter, is red clay. In the United States, Redart is the most commonly used and distributed red clay. Redart is mined by Cedar Heights in Ohio. Eight different clay body formulations were made for testing, each formula had different ratios of ingredients: Redart, sawdust, ball clays, play sand, and water. A total of 24 filters were produced, fired, and tested. Later, to compare flow rate performance, water was filtered through each filter for 3 consecutive days. The flow rates varied from 0.5 to 2 liters per hour.

Read more on Analysis of Redart Clay in Filtron Water Filters…

Redart-filter-tests-owu.pdf

Kristina Bogdanov, Assistant Professor, Fine Arts Department, Ohio Wesleyan University,
Delaware, Ohio
Emily Koly, BFA student, Fine Arts Department, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio

 

Abstract
One of the most commonly promoted, and used, water filters, in developing countries, is the Filtron ceramic filter. The most commonly used clay, in the production of the Filtron ceramic filter, is red clay. In the United States, Redart is the most commonly used and distributed red clay. Redart is mined by Cedar Heights in Ohio. Eight different clay body formulations were made for testing, each formula had different ratios of ingredients: Redart, sawdust, ball clays, play sand, and water. A total of 24 filters were produced, fired, and tested. Later, to compare flow rate performance, water was filtered through each filter for 3 consecutive days. The flow rates varied from 0.5 to 2 liters per hour.