This is a first publication of RDICâ€Ÿs ceramic water filter production techniques, ideas and visions. We
are planning additions and amendments into the future. So stay tuned and keep in touch as we
continue to refine and provide further information to assist you with your factory projects. Information
on updates can be found at http://www.rdic.org
Ceramic filter pilot projects (2002-2006) in Cambodia have yielded promising results that suggest these
interventions can be effective in improving drinking water quality and can contribute to substantial
health gains in populations using them.
Household-scale ceramic filtration technology is considered among the most promising options for treating drinking water at the household level in developing countries (Lantagne 2001; Sobsey 2002; Roberts 2004). Its use is Cambodia is widespread and growing, with the involvement of local and international NGOs and government efforts that have been supported by UNICEF, WSP-Cambodia, and others. Although several different kinds of ceramic filters are used for household-scale water treatment worldwide, among the most widespread is that promoted by Potters for Peace, a US and Nicaragua-based NGO; the Cambodian version is known as the Ceramic Water Purifier (CWP). It has been used in Cambodia since its introduction in 2001. Based on early successes in Cambodia (Roberts 2004), further investment in the technology is planned by NGOs and the Cambodian government. Stakeholders identified evaluation of the CWP experience to date in the country as vital to inform the scale up process and to identify lessons learned in the first 4 years of production and implementation. Part of this evaluation was an independent study commissioned by UNICEF and WSP-Cambodia to critically examine two major implementation efforts to date in Cambodia undertaken by the two main producers, IDE and RDI. The goals of the study were to characterize the microbiological effectiveness and health impacts of the CWP in target populations, and to identify successes and potential challenges facing the scale-up and implementation of the technology. The results of the study and program recommendations are presented here.”
Joseph Mark Brown
A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering.
Chapel Hill 2007
JOSEPH MARK BROWN: EFFECTIVENESS OF CERAMIC FILTRATION FOR
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN CAMBODIA
(Under the direction of Mark D. Sobsey, Ph.D.)
For the estimated 66% of Cambodians without access to improved drinking water sources and the potentially much greater percentage without consistent access to microbiologically safe water, point-of-use water treatment coupled with appropriate storage to prevent recontamination is a promising option for securing access to safe drinking water. The ceramic water purifier (CWP) is an emerging point-of-use water treatment technology that is made locally in Cambodia and in several other developing countries based on a design originally developed in Latin America in the 1980s. Despite the filter’s increasingly widespread promotion and implementation as a public health intervention within Cambodia and worldwide, its effectiveness in reducing waterborne microbes and diarrheal disease in users has not been adequately characterized. This dissertation examines: (i) the microbiological effectiveness of locally produced ceramic filters in Cambodia against bacterial and viral surrogates in the laboratory and in field use; (ii) the health impacts of the CWP and a modified CWP in a randomized, controlled trial in a rural/peri-urban village; and (iii) the continued use, microbiological effectiveness, and sustained health impacts of the CWP after up to 44 months in household use in three provinces of Cambodia.